大卫 数点 跟随他的人 ，立 千 夫长 、百 夫长 率领他们。
And David numbered the people that were
with him, and set captains of thousands and captains of hundreds over them.
David reviews and arranges the people, and gives the command
to Joab, Abishai, and Ittai, 1, 2.
On his expressing a desire to accompany them to the battle,
they will not permit him, 3.
He reviews them as they go out of the city, and gives
commandment to the captains to save Absalom, 4, 5.
They join battle with Absalom and his army, who are discomfited
with the loss of twenty thousand men, 6-8.
Absalom, fleeing away, is caught by his head in an oak; Joab
finds him, and transfixes him with three darts, 9-15.
The servants of David are recalled, and Absalom buried, 16-18.
Ahimaaz and Cushi bring the tidings to David, who is greatly
distressed at hearing of the death of Absalom, and makes
bitter lamentation for him, 19-33.
NOTES ON CHAP. XVIII
Verse 1. And set captains of thousands
] By this time David's
small company was greatly recruited; but what its number was we
cannot tell. Josephus says it amounted to four thousand
Others have supposed that they amounted to ten thousand
; for thus
they understand a clause in 2Sa 18:3
, which they think should be
read, We are now ten thousand
大卫 打发 军兵 出战，分为三队：一队在约押 手 下，一队在洗鲁雅 的儿子 、约押 兄弟 亚比筛 手 下，一队在迦特人 以太 手 下。大卫对军兵 说 ：我 必 与你们一同出战 。
And David sent forth a third part of the people under the hand of Joab, and a third part under the hand of Abishai the son of Zeruiah, Joab's brother, and a third part under the hand of Ittai the Gittite. And the king said unto the people, I will surely go forth with you myself also.
军兵 却说 ：你不可出战 。若是我们逃跑 ，敌人必不介意 ；我们阵亡 一半 ，敌人也不介意 。因为你一人强似 我们万 人，你不如 在城 里预备帮助 我们。
But the people answered, Thou shalt not go forth: for if we flee away, they will not care for us; neither if half of us die, will they care for us: but now thou art
worth ten thousand of us: therefore now it is
better that thou succour us out of the city.a, b, c
Verse 3. But now
thou art worth ten thousand of us
] The particle attah, now
, is doubtless a mistake for the pronoun attah, thou
; and so it appears to have been read by the Septuagint
, the Vulgate
, and the Chaldee
, and by two of
Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS.
王 向他们说 ：你们以为怎样好 ，我就怎样行 。于是王 站 在城门 旁 ，军兵 或百 或千 地挨次出去 了。
And the king said unto them, What seemeth you best I will do. And the king stood by the gate side, and all the people came out by hundreds and by thousands.
王 嘱咐 约押 、亚比筛 、以太 说 ：你们要为我的缘故宽待 那少年人 押沙龙 。王 为 押沙龙 嘱咐 众将 的话，兵 都听见 了。
And the king commanded Joab and Abishai and Ittai, saying, Deal
gently for my sake with the young man, even
with Absalom. And all the people heard when the king gave all the captains charge concerning Absalom.
Verse 5. Deal gently-with the young man
] David was the father
this worthless young man; and is it to be wondered at that he
feels as a father
? Who in his circumstances, that had such
feelings as every man should have, would have felt, or acted
兵 就出到 田野 迎着 以色列 人，在以法莲 树林 里交战 。
¶ So the people went out into the field against Israel: and the battle was in the wood of Ephraim;
以色列 人 败 在大卫 的仆人 面前 ；那日 阵亡 的甚多 ，共有二万 人。
Where the people of Israel were slain before the servants of David, and there was there a great slaughter that day of twenty thousand men
Verse 7. Twenty thousand men.
] Whether these were slain on the
field of battle, or whether they were reckoned with those slain in
of Ephraim, we know not.
因为在那里四面 打仗 ，死于 树林 的比死于 刀剑 的更多 。
For the battle was there scattered over the face of all the country: and the wood devoured more people that day than the sword devoured.d
Verse 8. The wood devoured more people
] It is generally supposed
that, when the army was broken, they betook themselves to the
wood, fell into pits, swamps, &c., and, being entangled, were hewn
down by David's men; but the Chaldee, Syriac
, and Arabic
that they were devoured by wild beasts
in the wood.
押沙龙 偶然遇见 大卫 的仆人 。押沙龙 骑 着骡子 ，从大 橡树 密枝 底下经过 ，他的头 发被树枝绕住 ，就悬挂 起来，所骑的骡子 便离他去 了。
¶ And Absalom met the servants of David. And Absalom rode upon a mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great oak, and his head caught hold of the oak, and he was taken up between the heaven and the earth; and the mule that was
under him went away.
Verse 9. And his head caught hold of the oak
] It has been
supposed that Absalom was caught by the hair
, but no such thing is
intimated in the text. Probably his neck was caught in the fork of
a strong bough, and he was nearly dead when Joab found him; for it
is said, 2Sa 18:14
, he was yet alive
, an expression which intimates he was nearly dead
有个 人 看见 ，就告诉 约押 说 ：我看见 押沙龙 挂 在橡树 上了。
And a certain man saw it
, and told Joab, and said, Behold, I saw Absalom hanged in an oak.
Verse 10. I saw Absalom hanged in an oak.
] He must have hung
there a considerable time. this man saw him hanging; how long he
had been hanging before
he saw him, we cannot tell. He came and
informed Joab; this must have taken up a considerable time. Joab went
and pierced him through with three darts; this must have
taken up still more time. It is therefore natural to conclude that
his life must have been nearly gone after having been so long
suspended, and probably was past recovery, even if Joab had taken
约押 对报信 的人 说 ：你既看见 他，为甚么不将他打死 落在地上 呢？你若打死他，我就赏 你十 舍客勒银子 ，一条 带子 。
And Joab said unto the man that told him, And, behold, thou sawest him
, and why didst thou not smite him there to the ground? and I would have given thee ten shekels
of silver, and a girdle.
Verse 11. And a girdle.
] The military belt was the chief
ornament of a soldier, and was highly prized in all ancient
nations; it was also a rich present from one chieftain to another. Jonathan
gave his to David
, as the highest pledge of his esteem
and perpetual friendship, 1Sa 18:4
. And Ajax
gave his to Hector
, as a token of the highest respect.-Hom
Il. vii., ver. 305.
那人 对约押 说 ：我就是 得 你一千 舍客勒银子 ，我也不敢伸 手 害王 的儿子 ；因为我们听见 王 嘱咐 你和亚比筛 并以太 说 ：你们要谨慎 ，不可害那少年人 押沙龙 。
And the man said unto Joab, Though I should receive a thousand shekels
of silver in mine hand, yet
would I not put forth mine hand against the king's son: for in our hearing the king charged thee and Abishai and Ittai, saying, Beware that none touch
the young man Absalom.e, f
我若 妄 为 害了他的性命 ，就是你自己也必与我为敌（原来，无论何事 都瞒 不过王 。）
Otherwise I should have wrought falsehood against mine own life: for there is no matter hid from the king, and thou thyself wouldest have set thyself against me
Verse 13. Thou thyself wouldest have set thyself against me.
This is a strong appeal to Joab's loyalty, and respect for the
orders of David; but he was proof against every fine feeling, and
against every generous sentiment.
约押 说 ：我不能与你留连 。约押手 拿 三 杆短枪 ，趁押沙龙 在橡树 上还活着 ，就刺透 他的心 。
Then said Joab, I may not tarry thus with thee. And he took three darts in his hand, and thrust them through the heart of Absalom, while he was
yet alive in the midst of the oak.g, h
Verse 14. I may not tarry thus with thee
] He had nothing to say
in vindication of the purpose he had formed. Thrust them through the heart of Absalom
] He was determined to
make sure work, and therefore he pierced his heart
Joab should have obeyed the king's commandment: and yet the
safety of the state required the sacrifice of Absalom. But
independently of this, his life was quadruply forfeited to the
law:-1. In having murdered his brother Amnon. 2. In having
excited an insurrection in the state. 3. In having taken up arms
against his own father, De 21:18, 21
. 4. In having lain with his
father's concubines, Le 18:29
. Long ago he should have died by
the hand of justice; and now all his crimes are visited on him in
his last act of rebellion. Yet, in the present circumstances,
Joab's act was base and disloyal, and a cowardly murder.
给约押 拿 兵器 的十个 少年人 围绕 押沙龙 ，将他杀死 。
And ten young men that bare Joab's armour compassed about and smote Absalom, and slew him.
Verse 15. Ten young men-smote Absalom and slew him.
] That is,
they all pierced the body; but there could be no life in it after
three darts had been thrust through the heart: but they added as
much as would have killed him had he been alive.
约押 吹 角 ，拦阻 众人 ，他们就回来 ，不再追赶 以色列 人。
And Joab blew the trumpet, and the people returned from pursuing after Israel: for Joab held back the people.
Verse 16. Joab blew the trumpet
] He knew that the rebellion was
now extinguished by the death of Absalom; and was not willing that
any farther slaughter should be made of the deluded people.
他们将 押沙龙 丢 在林 中一个大 坑 里，上头堆起 一大堆 石头 。以色列 众人都逃跑 ，各回各家去了。
And they took Absalom, and cast him into a great pit in the wood, and laid a very great heap of stones upon him: and all Israel fled every one to his tent.
Verse 17. And laid a very great heap of stones
] This was the
method of burying heroes, and even traitors, the heap of stones
being designed to perpetuate the memory of the event, whether good
or bad. The ancient cairns
or heaps of stones, in different parts
of the world, are of this kind. The various tumuli
England are the same as the cairns
in different parts of Ireland
and Scotland. In the former, stones
were not plenty; hence they
heaped up great mounds of earth
押沙龙 活着的时候 ，在王 谷 立 了一根石柱 ，因他说 ：我没有儿子 为我留 名 。他就以自己的名 称 那石柱 叫 押沙龙 柱 ，直到今日 。
¶ Now Absalom in his lifetime had taken and reared up for himself a pillar, which is
in the king's dale: for he said, I have no son to keep my name in remembrance: and he called the pillar after his own name: and it is called unto this day, Absalom's place.
Verse 18. Reared up for himself a pillar
] There was a marble
pillar in the time of Josephus called Absalom's pillar
: and there
is one shown to the present day under this name; but it is
comparatively a modern structure. Absalom's place.
] Literally Absalom's HAND
. See Clarke on 1Sa 15:12
撒督 的儿子 亚希玛斯 说 ：容我跑去 ，将耶和华
向仇敌 给王 报仇 的信息 报 与王知。
¶ Then said Ahimaaz the son of Zadok, Let me now run, and bear the king tidings, how that the LORD
hath avenged him of his enemies.i
约押 对他说 ：你 今日 不可去报信 ，改日 可以报信 ；因为今日 王 的儿子 死了 ，所以你不可去报信 。
And Joab said unto him, Thou shalt not bear tidings this day, but thou shalt bear tidings another day: but this day thou shalt bear no tidings, because the king's son is dead.j
约押 对古示人 说 ：你去 将你所看见 的告诉 王 。古示人 在约押 面前下拜 ，就跑 去了。
Then said Joab to Cushi, Go tell the king what thou hast seen. And Cushi bowed himself unto Joab, and ran.
Verse 21. Tell the king what thou hast seen
] At this time the
death of Absalom was not publicly known; but Joab had given Cushi
private information of it. This Ahimaaz had not, for he could not
tell the king whether Absalom were dead. To this Joab seems to
refer, 2Sa 18:22
: "Thou hast no tidings ready."
撒督 的儿子 亚希玛斯 又 对约押 说 ：无论怎样 ，求你容我随着 古示人 跑 去。约押 说 ：我儿 ，你报这信息 ，既不得赏赐 ，何必要跑 去呢？
Then said Ahimaaz the son of Zadok yet again to Joab, But howsoever, let me, I pray thee, also run after Cushi. And Joab said, Wherefore wilt thou run, my son, seeing that thou hast no tidings ready?k, l
他又说：无论怎样，我要跑 去。约押说 ：你跑 去罢！亚希玛斯 就从 平原 往前跑 ，跑过 古示人 去了。
But howsoever, said he
, let me run. And he said unto him, Run. Then Ahimaaz ran by the way of the plain, and overran Cushi.
大卫 正坐 在城瓮 里。守望的人 上 城门 楼的顶上 ，举 目 观看 ，见有一个人 独自跑 来。
And David sat between the two gates: and the watchman went up to the roof over the gate unto the wall, and lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold a man running alone.
Verse 24. David sat between the two gates
] He was probably in
the seat of justice. Before the gate of the city it is supposed
there was an enclosure, which had its gate also; David sat in the
space between these two doors. Over the larger gate there appears
to have been a turret, on which a sentinel or watchman stood
continually, and gave information of what he saw in the country.
守望的人 就大声 告诉 王 。王 说 ：他若独自来，必是报口 信 的。那人跑得渐渐近 了。
And the watchman cried, and told the king. And the king said, If he be
alone, there is
tidings in his mouth. And he came apace, and drew near.
Verse 25. If he
, there is tidings
] That is, good tidings
. For if the battle had been lost men would have been
running in different directions through the country.
守望的人 又见 一 人 跑 来，就对守城门的人 说 ：又有一人 独自跑 来。王 说 ：这也必是报信 的。
And the watchman saw another man running: and the watchman called unto the porter, and said, Behold another
man running alone. And the king said, He also bringeth tidings.
守望的人 说 ：我看 前头 人的跑法 ，好象撒督 的儿子 亚希玛斯 的跑法 一样。王 说 ：他是个好 人 ，必是报 好 信息 。
And the watchman said, Me thinketh the running of the foremost is like the running of Ahimaaz the son of Zadok. And the king said, He is
a good man, and cometh with good tidings.m
亚希玛斯 向王 呼叫 说 ：平安了 ！就在王 面前脸 伏于地 叩拜 ，说 ：耶和华
―你的神 是应当称颂 的，因他已将那举 手 攻击我主 我王 的人 交给 王了。
And Ahimaaz called, and said unto the king, All is well. And he fell down to the earth upon his face before the king, and said, Blessed be
thy God, which hath delivered up the men that lifted up their hand against my lord the king.n, o
王 问说 ：少年人 押沙龙 平安 不平安？亚希玛斯 回答说 ：约押 打发 王 的仆人 ，那时仆人 听见 众民大声 諠譁 ，却不知道 是甚么事。
And the king said, Is the young man Absalom safe? And Ahimaaz answered, When Joab sent the king's servant, and me
thy servant, I saw a great tumult, but I knew not what it was
Verse 29. I saw a great tumult
] It was very probable that
Ahimaaz did not know of the death of Absalom; he had seen the rout
of his army, but did not know of his death. Others think he knew
all, and told this untruth that he might not be the messenger of
bad news to David.
王 说 ：你退去 ，站在 旁边 。他就退去 ，站在旁边 。
And the king said unto him
, Turn aside, and
stand here. And he turned aside, and stood still.
Verse 30. Stand here.
] He intended to confront two messengers,
and compare their accounts.
古示人 也来到 ，说 ：有信息 报给我主 我王 ！耶和华
今日 向一切兴起 攻击你的人 给你报仇 了。
And, behold, Cushi came; and Cushi said, Tidings, my lord the king: for the LORD
hath avenged thee this day of all them that rose up against thee.q
王 问古示人 说 ：少年人 押沙龙 平安 不平安？古示人 回答说 ：愿我主 我王 的仇敌 ，和一切兴起 要杀害 你的人，都与那少年人 一样。
And the king said unto Cushi, Is the young man Absalom safe? And Cushi answered, The enemies of my lord the king, and all that rise against thee to do thee
hurt, be as that
young man is
Verse 32. Is the young man Absalom safe?
] This was the utmost of
his solicitude, and it well merited the reproof which Joab gave
him, 2Sa 19:5
王 就心里伤恸 ，上 城门 楼 去哀哭 ，一面走 一面说 ：我儿 押沙龙 啊！我儿 ，我儿 押沙龙 啊！我恨不得替 你死 ，押沙龙 啊，我儿 ！我儿 ！
¶ And the king was much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept: and as he went, thus he said, O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!
Verse 33. O my son Absalom
] It is allowed by the most able
critics that this lamentation is exceedingly pathetic. In what
order the words were pronounced, for much depends on this, we
cannot say. Perhaps it was the following:-
Beni Abshalom, beni!
My son Absalom! O my son!
O my son Absalom!
Mi yitten muthi ani thachteicha.
O that I had died in thy stead!
Abshalom, beni! beni!
O Absalom, my son, my son!
Is there no hope for the soul of this profligate young man? He
died in his iniquity: but is it not possible that he implored the
mercy of his Maker while he hung in the tree? And is it not
possible that the mercy of God was extended to him? And was not
that suspension a respite, to the end that he might have time to
deprecate the wrath of Divine justice?
This is at least a charitable conjecture, and humanity will
delight in such a case to lay hold even on possibilities
. If there
be any room for hope
in such a death, who that knows the worth of
an immortal soul, would not wish to indulge in it?