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Total 27 verses in Chapter 15: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 |


1 “我是真葡萄树,我父是培植的人。
1 I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman.

(η αμπελος η αληθινη). "The vine the genuine." Assuming that the Lord's Supper had just been instituted by Jesus the metaphor of the vine is naturally suggested by "the fruit of the vine" (). Αμπελος in the papyri (Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary) is sometimes used in the sense of ampelon (vineyard), but not so here. Jesus uses various metaphors to illustrate himself and his work (the light, ; the door, ; the shepherd, ; the vine, ). The vine was common in Palestine. See . "On the Maccabean coinage Israel was represented by a vine" (Dods). Jesus is the genuine Messianic vine.

(ο γεωργος) as in . cf. , θεου γεωργιον (God's field).

2 Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit.

(κλημα). Old word from κλαω, to break, common in LXX for offshoots of the vine, in N.T. only here (verses ), elsewhere in N.T. κλαδος (, etc.), also from κλαω, both words meaning tender and easily broken parts.

(εν εμο). Two kinds of connexion with Christ as the vine (the merely cosmic which bears no fruit, the spiritual and vital which bears fruit). The fruitless (not bearing fruit, μη φερον καρπον) the vine-dresser "takes away" (αιρε) or prunes away. Probably (Bernard) Jesus here refers to Judas.

(καθαιρε). Present active indicative of old verb καθαιρω (clean) as in verse , only use in N.T., common in the inscriptions for ceremonial cleansing, though καθαριζω is more frequent ().

(ινα καρπον πλειονα φερη). Purpose clause with ινα and present active subjunctive of φερω, "that it may keep on bearing more fruit" (more and more). A good test for modern Christians and church members.

3Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you.

(ηδη υμεις καθαρο εστε). Potentially cleansed (Westcott) as in which see and .

4Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me.

(μεινατε εν εμο). Constative aorist active imperative of μενω. The only way to continue "clean" (pruned) and to bear fruit is to maintain vital spiritual connexion with Christ (the vine). Judas is gone and Satan will sift the rest of them like wheat (). Blind complacency is a peril to the preacher.

(αφ' εαυτου). As source (from itself) and apart from the vine (cf. ).

(εαν μη μενη). Condition of third class with εαν, negative μη, and present active (keep on abiding) subjunctive of μενω. Same condition and tense in the application, "except ye abide in me."

5 I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing.

(υμεις τα κληματα). Jesus repeats and applies the metaphor of verse .

(χωρις εμου). See for χωρις Χριστου. There is nothing for a broken off branch to do but wither and die. For the cosmic relation of Christ see (χωρις αυτου).

6If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.

(εβληθη εξω). Timeless or gnomic use of the first aorist passive indicative of βαλλω as the conclusion of a third-class condition (see also verses for the same condition, only constative aorist subjunctive μεινητε and μεινη in verse ). The apostles are thus vividly warned against presumption. Jesus as the vine will fulfil his part of the relation as long as the branches keep in vital union with him.

(ως το κλημα).

(εξηρανθη). Another timeless first aorist passive indicative, this time of ξηραινω, same timeless use in of grass, old and common verb. They gather (συναγουσιν). Plural though subject not expressed, the servants of the vine-dresser gather up the broken off branches.

(καιετα). Present passive singular of καιω, to burn, because κληματα (branches) is neuter plural. See this vivid picture also in .

7If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.

(ο εαν θελητε αιτησασθε). Indefinite relative with εαν and present active subjunctive of θελω, to wish, to will, and aorist middle imperative of αιτεω, to ask. This astounding command and promise (γενησετα, future middle of γινομα, it will come to pass) is not without conditions and limitations. It involves such intimate union and harmony with Christ that nothing will be asked out of accord with the mind of Christ and so of the Father. Christ's name is mentioned in ; cf. .

8 Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be my disciples.

(εν τουτω). That is in the vital union and the much fruit bearing. It points here backwards and forwards.

(εδοξασθη). Another gnomic or timeless first aorist passive indicative.

(φερετε). Present active subjunctive, "keep on bearing" much fruit.

(κα γενησεσθε). Rather "become." Future middle indicative of γινομα, though B D L read γενησθε (after ινα like φερητε). "Become" my disciples (learners) in the fullest sense of rich fruit-bearing according to the text in

9 As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love.

(μεινατε). Constative first aorist active imperative of μενω, summing up the whole.

(εν τη αγαπη τη εμη). Subjunctive possessive pronoun, "in the love that I have for you." Our love for Christ is the result of Christ's love for us and is grounded at bottom in the Father's love for the world (). John has εμος 37 times and always in the words of Jesus (Bernard). But he uses μου also (verse ).

10If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father's commandments, and abide in his love.

(μενειτε). Future tense of μενω, conclusion of the third-class condition (εαν and first aorist active subjunctive τηρησητε). The correlative of . Each involves the other (love and keeping the commandments of Jesus).

(κα μενω). The high example of Jesus (the Son) in relation to the Father is set before us as the goal.

11 These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full.

(ινα η χαρα η εμη εν υμιν η). Purpose clause with ινα and the present subjunctive η (some MSS. have μεινη, may remain), Christ's permanent absolute joy in the disciples.

(Κα η χαρα υμων πληρωθη). Same construction with first aorist (effective) passive subjunctive of πληροω, consummation of the process preceding.

12 This is my commandment, That ye love one another, as I have loved you.

(ινα αγαπατε αλληλους). Non-final use of ινα, introducing a subject clause in apposition with εντολη (commandment) and the present active subjunctive of αγαπαω, "that ye keep on loving one another." See .

13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

(ταυτης). Ablative case after the comparative adjective μειζονα and feminine agreeing with της αγαπης (love) understood.

(ινα τις την ψυχην αυτου θη). Object clause (non-final use of ινα in apposition with the ablative pronoun ταυτης and the second aorist active subjunctive of τιθημ. For the phrase see of the good shepherd. Cf. .

(υπερ των φιλων αυτου). "In behalf of his friends" and so "in place of his friends." "Self-sacrifice is the high-water mark of love" (Dods). For this use of υπερ see .

14Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you.

(εαν ποιητε). Condition of third class with εαν and the present active subjunctive, "if ye keep on doing," not just spasmodic obedience. Just a different way of saying what is in verse . Obedience to Christ's commands is a prerequisite to discipleship and fellowship (spiritual friendship with Christ). He repeats it in the Great Commission (, ενετειλαμην, I commanded) with the very word used here (εντελλομα, I command).

15Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of my Father I have made known unto you.

(ουκετ). As he had done in . He was their Rabbi () and Lord (). Paul gloried in calling himself Christ's δουλος (bond-slave).

(δουλους). Bond-servants, slaves.

(υμας ειρηκα φιλους). Perfect active indicative, permanent state of new dignity. They will prove worthy of it by continued obedience to Christ as Lord, by being good δουλο. Abraham was called the Friend of God (). Are we friends of Christ?

16Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should remain: that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you.

(αλλ' εγω εξελεξαμην υμας). First aorist middle indicative of εκλεγω. See this same verb and tense used for the choice of the disciples by Christ (). Jesus recognizes his own responsibility in the choice after a night of prayer (). So Paul was "a vessel of choice" (σκευος εκλογης, ). Appointed (εθηκα). First aorist active indicative (κ aorist) of τιθημ. Note three present active subjunctives with ινα (purpose clause) to emphasize continuance (υπαγητε, keep on going, φερητε, keep on bearing fruit, μενη, keep on abiding), not a mere spurt, but permanent growth and fruit-bearing.

(δω). Second aorist active subjunctive of διδωμ with ινα (purpose clause). Cf. for the same purpose and promise, but with ποιησω (I shall do). See also .

17These things I command you, that ye love one another.

(ινα αγαπατε αλληλους). Repetition of . This very night the disciples had been guilty of jealousy and wrangling ().


18If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you.

(ε ο κοσμος υμας μισε). Condition of the first class. As it certainly does.

(γινωσκετε). Present active second person plural indicative of γινωσκω or present active imperative (know), same form.

(μεμισηκεν). Perfect active indicative, "has hated and still hates."

(πρωτον υμων). Ablative case υμων after the superlative πρωτον as with πρωτος μου in .

19 If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.

(ο κοσμος αν το ιδιον εφιλε). Conclusion of second-class condition (determined as unfulfilled), regular idiom with αν and imperfect indicative in present time.

(οτ δε εκ του κοσμου ουκ εστε). Definite and specific reason for the world's hatred of real Christians whose very existence is a reproach to the sinful world. Cf. . Does the world hate us? If not, why not? Has the world become more Christian or Christians more worldly?

20 Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also.

(μνημονευετε). Present active imperative of μνημονευω, old verb from μνημων, in John again in . See for this word.

(ε εμε εδιωξαν). Condition of first class. They certainly did persecute (first aorist active of διωκω, to chase like a wild beast like the Latin persequor, our "persecute") Jesus (). They will persecute those like Jesus. Cf. for proof that this prophecy came true. But the alternative is true and is stated by Jesus with a like condition of the first class, "if they kept my word" (ε τον λογον μου ετηρησαν). The world does praise the word of Jesus, but dreads to follow it.

21But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me.

(εις υμας). Like the dative υμιν (Textus Receptus) as in the papyri and modern Greek (Robertson, Grammar, p. 594).

(δια το ονομα μου). See verse . See this same warning and language in ). There is little difference in meaning from ενεκεν μου (). Loyalty to the name of Christ will bring persecution as they will soon know (). About the world's ignorance of God see .

22If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloke for their sin.

(αμαρτιαν ουκ ειχοσαν). Conclusion of condition of second class without αν because context makes it clear (νυν δε) without it (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1013). The imperfect active indicative with -οσαν instead of -ον (also in verse ) as common in the LXX, and occurs in the papyri and the inscriptions and the Boeotian dialect.

(προφασιν). Old word () either from προφαινω, to show forth, or προφημ, to speak forth. Mere pretence, in John only here and verse .

23He that hateth me hateth my Father also.

(κα τον πατερα μου). Because Christ reveals God () and to dishonour Christ is to dishonour God (). The coming of Christ has revealed the weight of sin on those who reject him.

24If I had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father.

(κα εωρακασιν κα μεμισηκασιν). Perfect active indicative of οραω and μισεω, permanent attitude and responsibility. The "world" and the ecclesiastics (Sanhedrin) had united in this attitude of hostility to Christ and in reality to God.

25 But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause.

(αλλ'). Ellipsis in the Greek (no verb), as in .

(εν τω νομω αυτων). Cf. for this standpoint. "Law" (νομος) here is for the whole of Scripture as in . The allusion is to (or ). The hatred of the Jews toward Jesus the promised Messiah () is "part of the mysterious purpose of God" (Bernard) as shown by ινα πληρωθη (first aorist passive subjunctive of πληροω, to fulfil).

(δωρεαν). Adverbial accusative of δωρεα from διδωμ, gratuitously, then unnecessarily or gratis (in two Koine tablets, Nageli) as here and .

26But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:

(οταν ελθη ο παρακλητος). Indefinite temporal clause with οταν and the second aorist active subjunctive of ερχομα, "whenever the Comforter comes."

(ον εγω πεμψω υμιν παρα του πατρος). As in , but in the Father sends at the request of or in the name of Jesus. Cf. . This is the Procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and from the Son.

(ο). Grammatical neuter to agree with πνευμα, and should be rendered "who" like ο in .

(παρα του πατρος εκπορευετα). "From beside the Father" as in the preceding clause.

(εκεινος). Emphatic masculine pronoun, not neuter (εκεινο) though following ο.

(μαρτυρησε περ εμου). Future active of μαρτυρεω. This is the mission of the Paraclete () as it should be ours.

27And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.

(κα υμεις δε μαρτυρειτε). Present active indicative or imperative (do ye bear witness), same form of μαρτυρεω. "Ye also" as well as the Holy Spirit, ye also when filled with and taught by the Holy Spirit the things concerning Jesus. It is here that Christians fail most.

(εστε). Progressive present of ειμ, "are with me from the beginning of my ministry as in . They were chosen to be with Christ ().