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1 耶稣又对门徒说:“有一个财主的管家,有人在他主人面前告他浪费主人的财物。
1 And he said also unto his disciples, There was a certain rich man, which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods.

(κα προς τους μαθητας). The three preceding parables in chapter 15 exposed the special faults of the Pharisees, "their hard exclusiveness, self-righteousness, and contempt for others" (Plummer). This parable is given by Luke alone. The κα (also) is not translated in the Revised Version. It seems to mean that at this same time, after speaking to the Pharisees (chapter 15), Jesus proceeds to speak a parable to the disciples (), the parable of the Unjust Steward. It is a hard parable to explain, but Jesus opens the door by the key in verse .

(ος ηιχεν οικονομον). Imperfect active, continued to have. Steward is house-manager or overseer of an estate as already seen in .

(διεβληθη). First aorist indicative passive, of διαβαλλω, an old verb, but here only in the N.T. It means to throw across or back and forth, rocks or words and so to slander by gossip. The word implies malice even if the thing said is true. The word διαβολος (slanderer) is this same root and it is used even of women, she-devils ().

(ως διασκορπιζων). For the verb see on . The use of ως with the participle is a fine Greek idiom for giving the alleged ground of a charge against one.

(τα υπαρχοντα αυτου). "His belongings," a Lukan idiom.

2And he called him, and said unto him, How is it that I hear this of thee? give an account of thy stewardship; for thou mayest be no longer steward.

(τ τουτο ακουω;). There are several ways of understanding this terse Greek idiom. The Revised Version (above) takes τ to be equal to τ εστιν τουτο ο ακουω; That is a possible use of the predicate τουτο. Another way is to take τ to be exclamatory, which is less likely. Still another view is that τ is " Why": "Why do I hear this about thee?" See where that is the idiom employed.

(αποδος). Second aorist active imperative of αποδιδωμ, Give back (and at once).

(τον λογον). The reckoning or report. Common use of λογος.

(οικονομιας). Same root as οικονομος (steward). This demand does not necessarily mean dismissal if investigation proved him innocent of the charges. But the reason given implies that he is to be dismissed:

(ου γαρ δυνη).

3Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord taketh away from me the stewardship: I cannot dig; to beg I am ashamed.

(εν εαυτω). As soon as he had time to think the thing over carefully. He knew that he was guilty of embezzlement of the Master's funds.

(αφαιρειτα). Present (linear) middle indicative of αφαιρεω, old verb to take away. Here the middle present means, He is taking away for himself.

(επαιτειν αισχυνομα). The infinitive with αισχυνομα means ashamed to begin to beg. The participle, επαιτων αισχυνομα would mean, ashamed while begging, ashamed of begging while doing it.

4I am resolved what to do, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses.

(εγνων). Second aorist active indicative of γινωσκω. A difficult tense to reproduce in English. I knew, I know, I have known, all miss it a bit. It is a burst of daylight to the puzzled, darkened man: I've got it, I see into it now, a sudden solution.

(τ ποιησω). Either deliberative first aorist active subjunctive or deliberative future active indicative.

(οταν μετασταθω). First aorist passive subjunctive of μεθιστημ, (μετα, ιστημ), old verb, to transpose, transfer, remove. He is expecting to be put out.

(δεξωντα). First aorist middle subjunctive of δεχομα, common verb. Subjunctive with final particle ινα. He wishes to put the debtors under obligation to himself.

(των χρεοφιλετων). A late word. In the N.T. only here and from χρεος, loan, and οφειλετης, debtor. It is probable that he dealt with "each one" separately.

5 So he called every one of his lord's debtors unto him, and said unto the first, How much owest thou unto my lord?
6 And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty.

(βατους). Transliterated word for Hebrew bath, between eight and nine gallons. Here alone in the N.T. Not the same word as βατος ( ) in .

(σου τα γραμματα). Thy writings, thy contracts, thy note.

(ταχεως). It was a secret arrangement and speed was essential.

7 Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, An hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and write fourscore.

(κορους). Another Hebrew word for dry measure. The Hebrew cor was about ten bushels. Data are not clear about the Hebrew measures whether liquid ( ) or dry ( ).

8 And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.

(επηινεσεν ο κυριος). The steward's lord praised him though he himself had been wronged again (see verse "wasting his goods").

(τον οικονομον της αδικιας). Literally, the steward of unrighteousness. The genitive is the case of genus, species, the steward distinguished by unrighteousness as his characteristic. See "the mammon of unrighteousness" in verse . See "the forgetful hearer" in . It is a vernacular idiom common to Hebrew, Aramaic, and the Koine.

(φρονιμως). An old adverb, though here alone in the N.T. But the adjective φρονιμος from which it comes occurs a dozen times as in . It is from φρονεω and that from φρην, the mind (), the discerning intellect. Perhaps "shrewdly" or "discreetly" is better here than "wisely." The lord does not absolve the steward from guilt and he was apparently dismissed from his service. His shrewdness consisted in finding a place to go by his shrewdness. He remained the steward of unrighteousness even though his shrewdness was commended.

(οτ). Probably by this second οτ Jesus means to say that he cites this example of shrewdness because it illustrates the point. "This is the moral of the whole parable. Men of the world in their dealings with men like themselves are more prudent than the children of light in their intercourse with one another" (Plummer). We all know how stupid Christians can be in their co-operative work in the kingdom of God, to go no further.

(φρονιμωτερο υπερ). Shrewder beyond, a common Greek idiom.

9 And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations.

(εκ του μαμωνα της αδικιας). By the use of what is so often evil (money). In mammon is set over against God as in below. Jesus knows the evil power in money, but servants of God have to use it for the kingdom of God. They should use it discreetly and it is proper to make friends by the use of it.

(οταν εκλιπη). Second aorist active subjunctive with οταν, future time. The mammon is sure to fail.

(ινα δεξωντα υμας εις τας αιωνιους σκηνας). This is the purpose of Christ in giving the advice about their making friends by the use of money. The purpose is that those who have been blessed and helped by the money may give a welcome to their benefactors when they reach heaven. There is no thought here of purchasing an entrance into heaven by the use of money. That idea is wholly foreign to the context. These friends will give a hearty welcome when one gives him mammon here. The wise way to lay up treasure in heaven is to use one's money for God here on earth. That will give a cash account there of joyful welcome, not of purchased entrance.

10He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much: and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much.

(πιστος εν ελαχιστω). Elative superlative. One of the profoundest sayings of Christ. We see it in business life. The man who can be trusted in a very small thing will be promoted to large responsibilities. That is the way men climb to the top. Men who embezzle in large sums began with small sums. Verses here explain the point of the preceding parables.

11 If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches?

(εν τω αδικω μαμωνα). In the use of what is considered "unrighteous" as it so often is. Condition of the first class, "if ye did not prove to be" (ε ουκ εγενεσθε). Failure here forfeits confidence in "the true riches" (το αληθινον). There is no sadder story than to see a preacher go down by the wrong use of money, caught in this snare of the devil.

12And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own?

(το υμετερον). But Westcott and Hort read το ημετερον (our own) because of B L Origen. The difference is due to itacism in the pronunciation of υ- and η alike (long ). But the point in the passage calls for "yours" as correct. Earthly wealth is ours as a loan, a trust, withdrawn at any moment. It belongs to another (εν τω αλλοτριω). If you did not prove faithful in this, who will give you what is really yours forever? Compare "rich toward God" ().


13“一个家仆不能服事两个主人;他若不是恨这个爱那个,就是忠于这个轻视那个。你们不能服事 神,又服事金钱。”

13No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.

(οικετης). Household (οικος) servant. This is the only addition to where otherwise the language is precisely the same, which see. Either Matthew or Luke has put the λογιον in the wrong place or Jesus spoke it twice. It suits perfectly each context. There is no real reason for objecting to repetition of favourite sayings by Jesus.

14And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things: and they derided him.

(φιλαργυρο υπαρχοντες). Literally, being lovers of money. Φιλαργυρο is an old word, but in the N.T. only here and . It is from φιλος and αργυρος.

(ηκουον). Imperfect active, were listening (all the while Jesus was talking to the disciples (verses ).

(κα εξεμυκτηριζον). Imperfect active again of εκμυκτηριζω. LXX where late writers use simple verb. In the N.T. only here and . It means to turn out or up the nose at one, to sneer, to scoff. The Romans had a phrase, naso adunco suspendere, to hang on the hooked nose (the subject of ridicule). These money-loving Pharisees were quick to see that the words of Jesus about the wise use of money applied to them. They had stood without comment the three parables aimed directly at them (the lost sheep, the lost coin, the lost son). But now they do not remain quiet while they hear the fourth parable spoken to the disciples. No words were apparently spoken, but their eyes, noses, faces were eloquent with a fine disdain.

15耶稣对他们说:“你们在人面前自称为义, 神却知道你们的心;因为人所高举的, 神却看作是可憎恶的。
15 And he said unto them, Ye are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God.

(ο δικαιουντες εαυτους). They were past-masters at that and were doing it now by upturned noses.

(βδελυγμα ενωπιον του θεου). See on for this LXX word for a detestable thing as when Antiochus Epiphanes set up an altar to Zeus in place of that to Jehovah. There is withering scorn in the use of this phrase by Jesus to these pious pretenders.

16律法和先知到约翰就结束了。从此, 神的国的福音就传开了,人人都要努力进去。
16The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it.

(εις αυτην βιαζετα). A corresponding saying occurs in in a very different context. In both the verb βιαζετα, occurs also, but nowhere else in the N.T. It is present middle here and can be middle or passive in Matthew, which see. It is rare in late prose. Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 258) cites an inscription where βιαζομα is reflexive middle and used absolutely. Here the meaning clearly is that everyone forces his way into the kingdom of God, a plea for moral enthusiasm and spiritual passion and energy that some today affect to despise.

17And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail.

(μιαν κερεαν). See on .

18 Whosoever putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery: and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband committeth adultery.

(μοιχευε). Another repeated saying of Christ (). Adultery remains adultery, divorce or no divorce, remarriage or no marriage.



19 There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day:

(ενεδιδυσκετο). Imperfect middle of ενδιδυσκω, a late intensive form of ενδυω. He clothed himself in or with. It was his habit.

(πορφυραν). This purple dye was obtained from the purple fish, a species of mussel or μυρεξ (1Macc. 4:23). It was very costly and was used for the upper garment by the wealthy and princes (royal purple). They had three shades of purple (deep violet, deep scarlet or crimson, deep blue). See also .


or Egyptian flax (India and Achaia also). It is a yellowed flax from which fine linen was made for undergarments. It was used for wrapping mummies. "Some of the Egyptian linen was so fine that it was called woven air" (Vincent). Here only in the N.T. for the adjective βυσσινος occurs in .

(ευφραινομενος λαμπρως).

. The verb ευφραινομα we have already had in . Λαμπρως is an old adverb from λαμπρος, brilliant, shining, splendid, magnificent. It occurs here only in the N.T. This parable apparently was meant for the Pharisees (verse ) who were lovers of money. It shows the wrong use of money and opportunity.

20And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores,

(πτωχος). Original meaning of this old word. See on . The name Lazarus is from Ελεαζαρος, "God a help," and was a common one. Lazar in English means one afflicted with a pestilential disease.

(εβεβλητο). Past perfect passive of the common verb βαλλω. He had been flung there and was still there, "as if contemptuous roughness is implied" (Plummer).

(προς τον πυλωνα αυτου). Right in front of the large portico or gateway, not necessarily a part of the grand house, porch in .

(ειλκωμενος). Perfect passive participle of ελκοω, to make sore, to ulcerate, from ελκος, ulcer (Latin ulcus). See use of ελκος in verse . Common in Hippocrates and other medical writers. Here only in the N.T.

21 And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores.

(απο των πιπτοντων). From the things that fell from time to time. The language reminds one of (the prodigal son) and the Syro-Phoenician woman (). Only it does not follow that this beggar did not get the scraps from the rich man's table. Probably he did, though nothing more. Even the wild street dogs would get them also.

(αλλα κα ο κυνες). For αλλα κα see also . Αλλα can mean "yea," though it often means "but." Here it depends on how one construes Luke's meaning. If he means that he was dependent on casual scraps and it was so bad that even the wild dogs moreover were his companions in misery, the climax came that he was able to drive away the dogs. The other view is that his hunger was unsatisfied, but even the dogs increased his misery.

(επελειχον τα ελκη αυτου). Imperfect active of επιλειχω, a late vernacular Koine verb, to lick over the surface. It is not clear whether the licking of the sores by the dogs added to the misery of Lazarus or gave a measure of comfort, as he lay in his helpless condition. "Furrer speaks of witnessing dogs and lepers waiting together for the refuse" (Bruce). It was a scramble between the dogs and Lazarus.

22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried;

(απενεχθηνα). First aorist passive infinitive from αποφερω, a common compound defective verb. The accusative case of general reference (αυτον) is common with the infinitive in such clauses after εγενετο, like indirect discourse. It is his soul, of course, that was so borne by the angels, not his body.

(εις τον ολπον Αβρααμ). To be in Abraham's bosom is to the Jew to be in Paradise. In the Logos is in the bosom of the Father. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are in heaven and welcome those who come (; 4Macc. 14:17). The beloved disciple reclined on the bosom of Jesus at the last passover () and this fact indicates special favour. So the welcome to Lazarus was unusual.

(εταφη). Second aorist (effective) passive of the common verb θαπτω. Apparently in contrast with the angelic visitation to the beggar.

23 And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.

(εν τω Hαιδη). See on for discussion of this word. Lazarus was in Hades also for both Paradise (Abraham's bosom) and Gehenna are in the unseen world beyond the grave.

(εν βασανοις). The touchstone by which gold and other metals were tested, then the rack for torturing people. Old word, but in the N.T. only here, .

(ορα). Dramatic present indicative. The Jews believed that Gehenna and Paradise were close together. This detail in the parable does not demand that we believe it. The picture calls for it.

(απο μακροθεν). Pleonastic use of απο as μακροθεν means


24And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.

(ινα βαψη). First aorist active subjunctive of βαπτω, common verb, to dip.

(υδατος). Genitive, the specifying case, water and not something else.

(καταψυξη). First aorist active subjunctive of καταψυχω, a late Greek compound, to cool off, to make cool. Only here in the N.T. but common in medical books. Note perfective use of κατα- (down). A small service that will be welcome.

(οτ οδυνωμα). The active has a causative sense to cause intense pain, the middle to torment oneself (), the passive to be translated as here. Common verb, but no other examples in the N.T.

25 But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented.

(απελαβες). Second aorist indicative of απολαμβανω, old verb to get back what is promised and in full. See also .

(τα κακα). Not "his," but "the evil things" that came upon him.

(οδυνασα). Like καυχασα in . They contracted -αεσα without the loss of ς. Common in the Koine.

26And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence.

(εν πασ τουτοις).

(or regions).

(χασμα). An old word from χαινω, to yawn, our chasm, a gaping opening. Only here in the N.T.

(εστηρικτα). Perfect passive indicative of στηριζω, old verb (see on ). Permanent chasm.

(μη δυνωντα). Present middle subjunctive of δυναμα. The chasm is there on purpose ( , οπως μη) to prevent communication.

27Then he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house:

(ινα πεμψηις αυτον). As if he had not had a fair warning and opportunity. The Roman Catholics probably justify prayer to saints from this petition from the Rich Man to Abraham, but both are in Hades (the other world). It is to be observed besides, that Abraham makes no effort to communicate with the five brothers. But heavenly recognition is clearly assumed. Dante has a famous description of his visit to the damned (Purg. iii, 114).

28For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment.

(οπως διαμαρτυρητα). An old verb for solemn and thorough (δια-) witness. The Rich Man labours under the delusion that his five brothers will believe the testimony of Lazarus as a man from the dead.

29Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.

(ακουσατωσαν αυτων). Even the heathen have the evidence of nature to show the existence of God as Paul argues in Romans so that they are without excuse ().

30 And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent.

(μετανοησουσιν). The Rich Man had failed to do this and he now sees that it is the one thing lacking. It is not wealth, not poverty, not alms, not influence, but repentance that is needed. He had thought repentance was for others, not for all.

31And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.

(ουδ' πεισθησοντα). First future passive of πειθω. Gressmann calls attention to the fact that Jesus is saying this in the conclusion of the parable. It is a sharp discouragement against efforts today to communicate with the dead. "Saul was not led to repentance when he saw Samuel at Endor nor were the Pharisees when they saw Lazarus come forth from the tomb. The Pharisees tried to put Lazarus to death and to explain away the resurrection of Jesus" (Plummer). Alford comments on the curious fact that Lazarus was the name of the one who did rise from the dead but whose return from the dead "was the immediate exciting cause of their (Pharisees) crowning act of unbelief."