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撒种的比喻(可4:1-9;路8:4-8)

1 那一天,耶稣从房子里出来,坐在海边。
1 The same day went Jesus out of the house, and sat by the sea side.
1

(εν τη ημερα εκεινη). So this group of parables is placed by Matthew on the same day as the blasphemous accusation and the visit of the mother of Jesus. It is called "the Busy Day," not because it was the only one, but simply that so much is told of this day that it serves as a specimen of many others filled to the full with stress and strain.

(εκαθητο παρα την θαλασσαν). The accusative case need give no difficulty. Jesus came out of the stuffy house and took his seat (εκαθητο, imperfect) along the shore with the crowds stretched up and down, a picturesque scene.

2有很多人聚集到他那里。于是,他上船坐下来,众人都站在岸上。
2And great multitudes were gathered together unto him, so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the whole multitude stood on the shore.
2

(κα πας ο οχλος επ τον αιγιαλον ιστηκε). Past perfect tense of ιστημ with imperfect sense, had taken a stand and so stood. Note accusative also with επ upon the beach where the waves break one after the other (αιγιαλος is from αλς, sea, and αγνυμ, to break, or from αισσω, to rush). Jesus had to get into a boat and sit down in that because of the crush of the crowd.

3他用比喻对众人讲了许多事,说:“有一个撒种的出去撒种。
3And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow;
3

(πολλα εν παραβολαις). It was not the first time that Jesus had used parables, but the first time that he had spoken so many and some of such length. He will use a great many in the future as in Luke 12 to 18 and Matt. 24 and 25. The parables already mentioned in Matthew include the salt and the light (), the birds and the lilies (), the splinter and the beam in the eye (), the two gates (), the wolves in sheep's clothing (), the good and bad trees (), the wise and foolish builders (), the garment and the wineskins (), the children in the market places (). It is not certain how many he spoke on this occasion. Matthew mentions eight in this chapter (the Sower, the Tares, the Mustard Seed, the Leaven, the Hid Treasure, the Pearl of Great Price, the Net, the Householder). Mark adds the Parable of the Lamp (), the Parable of the Seed Growing of Itself (), making ten of which we know. But both Mark () and Matthew () imply that there were many others. "Without a parable spake he nothing unto them" (), on this occasion, we may suppose. The word parable (παραβολη from παραβαλλω, to place alongside for measurement or comparison like a yardstick) is an objective illustration for spiritual or moral truth. The word is employed in a variety of ways (a) as for sententious sayings or proverbs (), for a figure or type (); (b) a comparison in the form of a narrative, the common use in the Synoptic Gospels like the Sower; (c) "A narrative illustration not involving a comparison" (Broadus), like the Rich Fool, the Good Samaritan, etc. "The oriental genius for picturesque speech found expression in a multitude of such utterances" (McNeile). There are parables in the Old Testament, in the Talmud, in sermons in all ages. But no one has spoken such parables as these of Jesus. They hold the mirror up to nature and, as all illustrations should do, throw light on the truth presented. The fable puts things as they are not in nature, Aesop's Fables, for instance. The parable may not be actual fact, but it could be so. It is harmony with the nature of the case. The allegory (αλληγορια) is a speaking parable that is self-explanatory all along like Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. All allegories are parables, but not all parables are allegories. The Prodigal Son is an allegory, as is the story of the Vine and Branches (). John does not use the word parable, but only παροιμια, a saying by the way (). As a rule the parables of Jesus illustrate one main point and the details are more or less incidental, though sometimes Jesus himself explains these. When he does not do so, we should be slow to interpret the minor details. Much heresy has come from fantastic interpretations of the parables. In the case of the Parable of the Sower () we have also the careful exposition of the story by Jesus () as well as the reason for the use of parables on this occasion by Jesus ().

(ιδου ηλθεν ο σπειρων). Matthew is very fond of this exclamation ιδου. It is "the sower," not "a sower." Jesus expects one to see the man as he stepped forth to begin scattering with his hand. The parables of Jesus are vivid word pictures. To understand them one must see them, with the eyes of Jesus if he can. Christ drew his parables from familiar objects.

4撒的时候,有的落在路旁,小鸟飞来就吃掉了。
4And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way side, and the fowls came and devoured them up:
4

(εν τω σπειρειν αυτον). Literally, "in the sowing as to him," a neat Greek idiom unlike our English temporal conjunction. Locative case with the articular present infinitive.

(παρα την οδον). People will make paths along the edge of a ploughed field or even across it where the seed lies upon the beaten track.

(κατεφαγεν). "Ate down." We say, "ate up." Second aorist active indicative of κατεσθιω (defective verb).

5有的落在泥土不多的石地上,因为泥土不深,很快就长起来。
5 Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth:
5

(τα πετρωδη). In that limestone country ledges of rock often jut out with thin layers of soil upon the layers of rock.

(ευθεως εξανετειλεν). "Shot up at once" (Moffatt). Double compound (εξ, out of the ground, ανα, up). Ingressive aorist of εξανατελλω.

6但太阳一出来,就把它晒干,又因为没有根就枯萎了。
6And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away.
6

(ηλιου ανατειλαντος). Genitive absolute. "The sun having sprung up" also, same verb except the absence of εξ (ανατελλω, εξανατελλω).

7有的落在荆棘里,荆棘长大了,就把它挤住。
7And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them:
7

(ανεβησαν α ακανθα). Not "sprang up" as in verse , for a different verb occurs meaning "came up" out of the ground, the seeds of the thorns being already in the soil, "upon the thorns" (επ τας ακανθας) rather than "among the thorns." But the thorns got a quick start as weeds somehow do and "choked them" (απεπνιξαν αυτα, effective aorist of αποπνιγω), "choked them off" literally. Luke () uses it of the hogs in the water. Who has not seen vegetables and flowers and corn made yellow by thorns and weeds till they sicken and die?

8有的落在好土里,结出果实,有一百倍的,有六十倍的,有三十倍的。
8But other fell into good ground, and brought forth fruit, some an hundredfold, some sixtyfold, some thirtyfold.
8

(εδιδου καρπον). Change to imperfect tense of διδωμ, to give, for it was continuous fruit-bearing.

(ο μεν εκατον). Variety, but fruit. This is the only kind that is worth while. The hundredfold is not an exaggeration (cf. ). Such instances are given by Wetstein for Greece, Italy, and Africa. Herodotus (i. 93) says that in Babylonia grain yielded two hundredfold and even to three hundredfold. This, of course, was due to irrigation as in the Nile Valley.

9有耳的,就应当听。”
9 Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.
9

(ο εχων ωτα ακουετω), So also in and . It is comforting to teachers and preachers to observe that even Jesus had to exhort people to listen and to understand his sayings, especially his parables. They will bear the closest thought and are often enigmatical.

用比喻的目的(可4:10-12;路8:9-10,10:23-24)

10门徒上前问耶稣:“你对他们讲话,为什么用比喻呢?”
10And the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables?
10

(δια τ εν παραβολαις λαλεις αυτοις). Already the disciples are puzzled over the meaning of this parable and the reason for giving them to the people. So they "came up" closer to Jesus and asked him. Jesus was used to questions and surpassed all teachers in his replies.

11他回答:“天国的奥秘,只给你们知道,却不给他们知道。
11 He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given.
11

(γνωνα τα μυστηρια). Second aorist active infinitive of γινωσκω. The word μυστηριον is from μυστης, one initiated, and that from μυεω (μυω), to close or shut (Latin, mutus). The mystery-religions of the east had all sorts of secrets and signs as secret societies do today. But those initiated knew them. So the disciples have been initiated into the secrets of the kingdom of heaven. Paul will use it freely of the mystery once hidden, but now revealed, now made known in Christ (, etc.). In Paul says: "I have learned the secret or been initiated" (μεμυημα). So Jesus here explains that his parables are open to the disciples, but shut to the Pharisees with their hostile minds. In the Gospels μυστηριον is used only here and in the parallel passages ().

12因为凡是有的,还要给他,他就充足有余;凡是没有的,就连他有什么也要拿去。
12For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath.
13因此,我用比喻对他们讲话,因为他们看却看不见,听也听不到,也不明白。
13 Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand.
13

(οτ βλεποντες). In the parallel passages in and we find ινα with the subjunctive. This does not necessarily mean that in Mark and Luke ινα=οτ with the causal sense, though a few rare instances of such usage may be found in late Greek. For a discussion of the problem see my chapter on "The Causal Use of Hina" in Studies in Early Christianity (1928) edited by Prof. S.J. Case. Here in Matthew we have first "an adaptation of which is quoted in full in v. " (McNeile). Thus Matthew presents "a striking paradox, 'though they see, they do not (really) see'" (McNeile). Cf. . The idiom here in Matthew gives no trouble save in comparison with Mark and Luke which will be discussed in due turn. The form συνιουσιν is an omega verb form (συνιω) rather than the μ verb (συνιημ) as is common in the Koine.

14以赛亚的预言,正应验在他们身上,他说:‘你们听是听见了,总是不明白;看是看见了,总是不领悟。
14And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive:
14

(αναπληρουτα). Aoristic present passive indicative. Here Jesus points out the fulfilment and not with Matthew's usual formula (ινα or οπως πλωρηθη το ρηθεν (see ). The verb αναπληροω occurs nowhere else in the Gospels, but occurs in the Pauline Epistles. It means to fill up like a cup, to fill another's place (), to fill up what is lacking (). Here it means that the prophecy of Isaiah is fully satisfied in the conduct of the Pharisees and Jesus himself points it out. Note two ways of reproducing the Hebrew idiom (infinitive absolute), one by ακοη the other by βλεποντες. Note also the strong negative ου μη with aorist subjunctive.

15因为这人民的心思迟钝,用不灵的耳朵去听,又闭上了眼睛;免得自己眼睛看见,耳朵听见,心里明白,回转过来,我就医好他们。’
15For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
15

(επαχυνθη). Aorist passive tense. From παχυς, thick, fat, stout. Made callous or dull -- even fatty degeneration of the heart.

(τοις ωσιν βαρεως ηκουσαν). Another aorist. Literally, "They heard (or hear) heavily with their ears." The hard of hearing are usually sensitive.

(τους οφθαλμους αυτων εκαμμυσαν). The epic and vernacular verb καμμυω is from καταμυω (to shut down). We say shut up of the mouth, but the eyes really shut down. The Hebrew verb in means to smear over. The eyes can be smeared with wax or cataract and thus closed. "Sealing up the eyes was an oriental punishment" (Vincent). See .

(μηποτε). This negative purpose as a judgment is left in the quotation from Isaiah. It is a solemn thought for all who read or hear the word of God.

(κα ιασομα αυτους). Here the LXX changes to the future indicative rather than the aorist subjunctive as before.

16“你们的眼睛是有福的,因为可以看见;你们的耳朵是有福的,因为可以听见。
16But blessed are your eyes, for they see: and your ears, for they hear.
16

(υμων δε μακαριο ο οφθαλμο). A beatitude for the disciples in contrast with the Pharisees. Note position of "Happy" here also as in the Beatitudes in .

17我实在告诉你们,曾经有许多先知和义人想看你们所看见的,却没有看到,想听你们所听见的,却没有听到。
17For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.

解释撒种的比喻(可4:13-20;路8:11-15)

18“所以你们要听这撒种人的比喻。




18Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower.
18

(υμεις ουν ακουσατε την παραβολην). Jesus has given in one reason for his use of parables, the condemnation which the Pharisees have brought on themselves by their spiritual dulness: "Therefore I speak to them in parables" (δια τουτο εν παραβωλαις αντοις λαλω). He can go on preaching the mysteries of the kingdom without their comprehending what he is saying, but he is anxious that the disciples really get personal knowledge (γνωνα, verse ) of these same mysteries. So he explains in detail what he means to teach by the Parable of the Sower. He appeals to them (note position of υμεις) to listen as he explains.

19凡是听了天国的道却不明白的,那恶者就来把撒在他心中的夺去。这就是撒在路旁的。
19When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. This is he which received seed by the way side.
19

(παντος ακουοντος). Genitive absolute and present participle, "while everyone is listening and not comprehending" (μη συνιεντος), "not putting together" or "not grasping." Perhaps at that very moment Jesus observed a puzzled look on some faces.

(ερχετα ο πονηρος κα αρπαζε). The birds pick up the seeds while the sower sows. The devil is busy with his job of snatching or seizing like a bandit or rogue the word of the kingdom before it has time even to sprout. How quickly after the sermon the impression is gone. "This is he" (ουτος εστιν). Matthew, like Mark, speaks of the people who hear the words as the seed itself. That creates some confusion in this condensed form of what Jesus actually said, but the real point is clear.

(το εσπαρμενον εν τη καρδια αυτου, perfect passive participle of σπειρω, to sow) and "the man sown by the wayside" (ο παρα την οδον σπαρεις, aorist passive participle, along the wayside) are identified. The seed in the heart is not of itself responsible, but the man who lets the devil snatch it away.

20那撒在石地上的,就是人听了道,立刻欢欢喜喜地接受,
20But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it;
21可是他里面没有根,只是暂时的;一旦为道遭遇患难,受到迫害,就立刻跌倒了。
21Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended.
21

(ουκ εχε δε ριζαν εν εαυτω). Cf. and ερριζωμεμο. Stability like a tree. Here the man has a mushroom growth and "endureth for a while" (προσκαιρος), temporary, quick to sprout, quick to stumble (σκανδαλιζετα). What a picture of some converts in our modern revivals. They drop away overnight because they did not have the root of the matter in them. This man does not last or hold out.

(θλιψεως). From θλιβω, to press, to oppress, to squeeze (cf. ). The English word is from the Latin tribulum, the roller used by the Romans for pressing wheat. Cf. our "steam roller" Trench (Synonyms of the N.T., pp. 202-4): "When, according to the ancient law of England, those who wilfully refused to plead, had heavy weights placed on their breasts, and were pressed and crushed to death, this was literally θλιψις." The iron cage was στενοχωρια.

22那撒在荆棘里的,就是人听了道,有今世的忧虑和财富的迷惑把道挤住,结不出果实来。
22 He also that received seed among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful.
22

(συνπνιγε τον λογον). We had απεπνιξαν (choked off) in . Here it is συνπνιγε (choke together), historical present and singular with both subjects lumped together. "Lust for money and care go together and between them spoil many an earnest religious nature" (Bruce), "thorns" indeed. The thorns flourish and the character sickens and dies, choked to death for lack of spiritual food, air, sunshine.

23那撒在好土里的,就是人听了道,又明白了,结出果实来,有一百倍的,有六十倍的,有三十倍的。”
23But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty.
23

(δη καρποφορε). Who in reality (δη) does bear fruit (cf. ). The fruit reveals the character of the tree and the value of the straw for wheat. Some grain must come else it is only chaff, straw, worthless. The first three classes have no fruit and so show that they are unfruitful soil, unsaved souls and lives. There is variety in those who do bear fruit, but they have some fruit. The lesson of the parable as explained by Jesus is precisely this, the variety in the results of the seed sown according to the soil on which it falls. Every teacher and preacher knows how true this is. It is the teacher's task as the sower to sow the right seed, the word of the kingdom. The soil determines the outcome. There are critics today who scout this interpretation of the parable by Jesus as too allegorical with too much detail and probably not that really given by Jesus since modern scholars are not agreed on the main point of the parable. But the average Christian sees the point all right. This parable was not meant to explain all the problems of human life.

稗子的比喻

24耶稣对他们另外讲了一个比喻,说:“天国好像人把好的种子撒在田里。




24 ¶ Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field:
24

(παρεθηκεν). So again in . He placed another parable beside (παρα) the one already given and explained. The same verb (παραθεινα) occurs in .

(ωμοιωθη). Timeless aorist passive and a common way of introducing these parables of the kingdom where a comparison is drawn (). The case of ανθρωπω is associative instrumental.

25人们睡了的时候,他的仇敌来把稗子撒在麦子中间,就走了。
25 But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way.
25

(εν τω καθευδειν τους ανθρωπους). Same use of the articular present infinitive with εν and the accusative as in .

(επεσπειρεν τα ζιζανια). Literally "sowed upon," "resowed" (Moffatt). The enemy deliberately sowed "the darnel" (ζιζανια is not "tares," but "darnel," a bastard wheat) over (επ) the wheat, "in the midst of the wheat." This bearded darnel, lolium temulentum, is common in Palestine and resembles wheat except that the grains are black. In its earlier stages it is indistinguishable from the wheat stalks so that it has to remain till near the harvest. Modern farmers are gaining more skill in weeding it out.

26到了发苗吐穗的时候,稗子也显出来。
26But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also.
26

(τοτε εφανη κα). The darnel became plain (εφανη, second aorist passive, effective aorist of φαινω to show) by harvest.

27仆人都前来问家主:‘主人,你不是把好的种子撒在田里吗?那些稗子是从哪里来的呢?’
27So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares?
28他回答:‘这是仇敌所作的。’仆人问他:‘你要我们去拔掉它吗?’
28 He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up?
29他说:‘不用,因为拔稗子的时候,恐怕也把麦子连根拔出来。
29But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them.
29

(εκριζωσητε αμα αυτοις τον σιτον). Literally, "root out." Easy to do with the roots of wheat and darnel intermingled in the field. So συλλεγοντες is not "gather up," but "gather together," here and verses and . Note other compound verbs here, "grow together" (συναυξανεσθα), "burn up" (κατακαυσα, burn down or completely), "bring together" (συναγετε).

30收割之前,让它们一同生长。到了收割的时候,我会吩咐收割的工人先拔掉稗子,捆起来,留着焚烧,却要把麦子收进我的仓里。’”
30Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.
30

(την αποθηκην μου). See already . Granary, storehouse, place for putting things away.

芥菜种和面酵的比喻(可4:30-32;路13:18-21)

31耶稣又对他们讲了另外一个比喻,说:“天国好像一粒芥菜种,人拿去把它种在田里。




31 ¶ Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field:
31

(ομοια εστιν). Adjective for comparison with associative instrumental as in .

(κοκκω σιναπεως). Single grain in contrast with the collective σπερμα ().

(λαβων εσπειρεν). Vernacular phrasing like Hebrew and all conversational style. In Koine.

32它是种子中最小的,但长大了,却比其他的蔬菜都大,成为一棵树,甚至天空的飞鸟也来在它的枝头搭窝。”
32Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.
32

(δενδρον). "Not in nature, but in size" (Bruce). "An excusable exaggeration in popular discourse."

33他对他们讲了另一个比喻:“天国好像面酵,妇女拿去放在三斗面里,直到全团发起来。”




33 ¶ Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.
33

(ομοια εστιν ζυμη). In its pervasive power. Curiously enough some people deny that Jesus here likens the expanding power of the Kingdom of heaven to leaven, because, they say, leaven is the symbol of corruption. But the language of Jesus is not to be explained away by such exegetical jugglery. The devil is called like a lion by Peter () and Jesus in Revelation is called the Lion of the Tribe of Judah (). The leaven permeates all the "wheaten meal" (αλευρου) till the whole is leavened. There is nothing in the "three measures," merely a common amount to bake. Dr. T.R. Glover in his Jesus of History suggests that Jesus used to notice his mother using that amount of wheat flour in baking bread. To find the Trinity here is, of course, quite beside the mark. The word for leaven, ζυμη, is from ζεω, to boil, to seethe, and so pervasive fermentation.

解释稗子的比喻

34耶稣用比喻向群众讲了这一切,他所讲的,没有不用比喻的。
34All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not unto them:
35这就应验了先知所说的:“我要开口用比喻,把创世以来隐秘的事说出来。”
35That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world.
35

(ερευξομα). To cast forth like a river, to gurgle, to disgorge, the passion of a prophet. From . The Psalmist claims to be able to utter "things hidden from the foundation of the world" and Matthew applies this language to the words of Jesus. Certain it is that the life and teaching of Jesus throw a flood of light on the purposes of God long kept hidden (κεκρυμμενα).

36耶稣离开群众,进到屋里,门徒前来问他:“请你给我们解释田里稗子的比喻。”
36Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field.
36

(διασαφησον ημιν). Also in . "Make thoroughly clear right now" (aorist tense of urgency). The disciples waited till Jesus left the crowds and got into the house to ask help on this parable. Jesus had opened up the Parable of the Sower and now they pick out this one, passing by the mustard seed and the leaven.

37他回答:“那撒好种子的是人子,
37 He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man;
38田就是世界,好种子就是属天国的人,稗子就是属那恶者的人,
38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one;
38

(ο δε αγρος εστιν ο κοσμος). The article with both "field" and "world" in Greek means that subject and predicate are coextensive and so interchangeable. It is extremely important to understand that both the good seed and the darnel (tares) are sown in the world, not in the Kingdom, not in the church. The separation comes at the consummation of the age (συντελεια αιωνος, ), the harvest time. They all grow together in the field (the world).

39撒稗子的仇敌是魔鬼,收割的时候是这世代的终结,收割的工人是天使。
39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels.
40稗子怎样被拔掉用火焚烧,在这世代终结的时候,也是一样。
40As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world.
41那时,人子要差派他的使者,把一切使人犯罪的事和不法之徒,从他的国中拔掉,
41The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity;
41

(εκ της βασιλειας αυτου). Out from the midst of the kingdom, because in every city the good and the bad are scattered and mixed together. Cf. εκ μεσου των δικαιων in "from the midst of the righteous." What this means is that, just as the wheat and the darnel are mixed together in the field till the separation at harvest, so the evil are mixed with the good in the world (the field). Jesus does not mean to say that these "stumbling-blocks" (τα σκανδαλα) are actually in the Kingdom of heaven and really members of the Kingdom. They are simply mixed in the field with the wheat and God leaves them in the world till the separation comes. Their destiny is "the furnace of fire" (την καμινον του πυρος).

42丢进火炉,在那里必要哀哭切齿。
42And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.
43那时,义人在他们父的国中,要像太阳一样的照耀。有耳的,就应当听。
43Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.
43

(εκλαμψουσιν). Shine out as the sun comes from behind a cloud (Vincent) and drive away the darkness after the separation has come (cf. ).

其他的比喻

44“天国好像藏在田里的宝贝,有人发现了,就把它藏起来,高高兴兴地离去,变卖了他的一切,来买那田地。




44Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field.
44

(κα εκρυψεν). Not necessarily bad morality. "He may have hid it to prevent it being stolen, or to prevent himself from being anticipated in buying a field" (Plummer). But if it was a piece of sharp practice, that is not the point of the parable. That is, the enormous wealth of the Kingdom for which any sacrifice, all that one has, is not too great a price to pay.

45“天国好像一个商人,搜罗宝贵的珍珠。




45Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls:
46他发现了一颗极贵重的珍珠,就离去,变卖了他的一切,来买那颗珍珠。
46Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.
46

(απελθων πεπρακεν). Rather eagerly and vividly told thus, "He has gone off and sold." The present perfect indicative, the dramatic perfect of vivid picture. Then he bought it. Present perfect, imperfect, aorist tenses together for lively action. Εμπορω is a merchant, one who goes in and out, travels like a drummer.

47“天国又好像一个网,撒在海里,网到各样的鱼。




47Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind:
47

(σαγηνη). Drag-net. Latin, sagena, English, seine. The ends were stretched out and drawn together. Only example of the word in the N.T. Just as the field is the world, so the drag-net catches all the fish that are in the sea. The separation comes afterwards. Vincent pertinently quotes Homer's Odyssey (xxii. 384-389) where the slain suitors in the halls of Ulysses are likened to fishes on the shore caught by nets with myriad meshes.

48网满了之后,人就把网拉上岸,坐下来把好的拣出,收藏起来,不好的就丢在外面。
48Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away.
48

(αγγη). Here only in the N.T. In we have αγγεια.

49这世代终结的时候,也是一样。那时天使要出去,把恶人从义人中分别出来。
49So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just,
50丢进火炉,在那里必要哀哭切齿。
50And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.
51“这一切你们明白吗?”他们回答:“明白。”
51Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord.
52耶稣说:“所以,每一个作天国门徒的经学家,就像家主从宝库中拿出新和旧的东西来。”
52Then said he unto them, Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.
52

(μαθετευθεις τη βασιλεια των ουρανων). First aorist passive participle. The verb is transitive in . Here a scribe is made a learner to the kingdom. "The mere scribe, Rabbinical in spirit, produces only the old and stale. The disciple of the kingdom like the Master, is always fresh-minded, yet knows how to value all old spiritual treasures of Holy Writ, or Christian tradition" (Bruce). So he uses things fresh (καινα) and ancient (παλαια). "He hurls forth" (εκβαλλε) both sorts.

耶稣在本乡遭人厌弃(可6:1-6。参路4:16-30)

53耶稣讲完了这些比喻,就离开那地方。




53 ¶ And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence.
54他回到自己的家乡,在会堂里教导人,众人都惊奇,说:“这个人的智慧和能力是从哪里来的呢?
54And when he was come into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, insomuch that they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works?
54

(ουχ ουτος εστιν ο του τεκτωνος υιοσ?). The well-known, the leading, or even for a time the only carpenter in Nazareth till Jesus took the place of Joseph as the carpenter. What the people of Nazareth could not comprehend was how one with the origin and environment of Jesus here in Nazareth could possess the wisdom which he appeared to have in his teaching (εδιδασκεν). That has often puzzled people how a boy whom they knew could become the man he apparently is after leaving them. They knew Joseph, Mary, the brothers (four of them named) and sisters (names not given). Jesus passed here as the son of Joseph and these were younger brothers and sisters (half brothers and sisters technically).

55他不是木匠的儿子吗?他母亲不是马利亚,他弟弟不是雅各、约瑟、西门和犹大吗?
55Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?
56他妹妹不是都在我们这里吗?他这一切是从哪里来的呢?”
56And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things?
57他们就厌弃耶稣。耶稣对他们说:“先知除了在本乡本家之外,没有不受人尊敬的。”
57And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.
57

(κα εσκανδαλιζοντο εν αυτω). Graphic imperfect passive. Literally, "They stumbled at him," "They were repelled by him" (Moffatt), "They turned against him" (Weymouth). It was unpardonable for Jesus not to be commonplace like themselves.

(ουκ εστιν ατιμος). This is a proverb found in Jewish, Greek, and Roman writers. Seen also in the Logia of Jesus (Oxyr. Papyri i. 3).

58因为他们不信,他就不在那里多行神迹了。
58And he did not many mighty works there because of their unbelief.
58

(δυναμεις). Powers. The "disbelief" (απιστιαν) of the townspeople blocked the will and the power of Jesus to work cures.