1And I saw another mighty angel come down from heaven, clothed with a cloud: and a rainbow was upon his head, and his face was as it were the sun, and his feet as pillars of fire:
(αλλον αγγελον ισχυρον). But the seventh trumpet does not sound till . This angel is not one of the seven or of the four, but like the other strong angel in or the other angel in . The sixth trumpet of ends in . The opening of the seventh seal was preceded by two visions (chapter ) and so here the sounding of the seventh trumpet () is preceded by a new series of visions ().
(καταβαινοντα εκ του ουρανου). Present active participle of καταβαινω picturing the process of the descent as in (cf. ).
(περιβεβλημενον νεφελην). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω with accusative case retained as in . Not proof that this angel is Christ, though Christ will come on the clouds () as he ascended on a cloud (). God's chariot is in the clouds (), but this angel is a special messenger of God's.
(η ιρις). See for this word. The construction here is changed from the accusative to the nominative.
(ως ο ηλιος). The very metaphor applied to Christ in .
(ως στυλο πυρος). Somewhat like the metaphor of Christ in , but still no proof that this angel is Christ. On στυλος see .
2 And he had in his hand a little book open: and he set his right foot upon the sea, and his left foot on the earth,
(κα εχων). This use of the participle in place of ειχεν (imperfect) is like that in , a Semitic idiom (Charles), or as if καταβαινων (nominative) had preceded in place of καταβαινοντα.
(βιβλαριδιον). A diminutive of βιβλαριον (papyri), itself a diminutive of βιβλιον () and perhaps in contrast with it, a rare form in Hermas and . In Tischendorf reads βιβλιδαριον, diminutive of βιβλιδιον (Aristophanes) instead of βιβλιον (Westcott and Hort). The contents of this little book are found in .
(ηνεωιγμενον). See . Perfect (triple reduplication) passive participle of ανοιγω, in contrast to the closed book in . There also we have επ (upon) την δεξιαν (the right hand), for it was a large roll, but here the little open roll is held in the hand (εν τη χειρ), apparently the left hand (verse ).
(εθηκεν). First aorist active indicative of τιθημ. The size of the angel is colossal, for he bestrides both land and sea. Apparently there is no special point in the right foot (τον ποδα τον δεξιον) being on the sea (επ της θαλασσης) and the left (τον ευωνυμον) upon the land (επ της γης). It makes a bold and graphic picture.
(ωσπερ λεων μυκατα). Only instance of ωσπερ in the Apocalypse, but ως in the same sense several times. Present middle indicative of μυκαομα, an old onomatopoetic word from μυ or μοο (the sound which a cow utters), common for the lowing and bellowing of cattle, Latin mugire, but in Theocritus for the roaring of a lion as here, though in we have ωρυομα. Homer uses μυκαομα for the clangour of the shield and Aristophanes for thunder. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It does not mean that what the angel said was unintelligible, only loud. Cf. , etc.
3 And cried with a loud voice, as when a lion roareth: and when he had cried, seven thunders uttered their voices.
(α επτα βροντα). A recognized group, but not explained here, perhaps John assuming them to be known. For βροντα see already . In the Lord speaks in the sevenfold voice of the thunderstorm upon the sea.
(τας εαυτων φωνας). Cognate accusative with ελαλησαν and εαυτων (reflexive) means "their own." In the voice of the Father to Christ was thought by some to be thunder.
4 And when the seven thunders had uttered their voices, I was about to write: and I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Seal up those things which the seven thunders uttered, and write them not.
(ημελλον γραφειν). Imperfect active of μελλω (double augment as in ) and the present (inchoative) active infinitive of γραφω, "I was on the point of beginning to write," as commanded in .
(σφραγισον). Aorist active imperative of σφραγιζω, tense of urgency, "seal up at once."
(κα μη αυτα γραψηις). Prohibition with μη and the ingressive aorist active subjunctive of γραφω, "Do not begin to write." It is idle to conjecture what was in the utterances. Compare Paul's silence in .
5And the angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth lifted up his hand to heaven,
(εστωτα). Second perfect active participle of ιστημ (intransitive). John resumes the picture in verse .
(ηρεν). First aorist active indicative of αιρω, to lift up.
(εις τον ουρανον). Toward heaven, the customary gesture in taking a solemn oath ().
6 And sware by him that liveth for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein, that there should be time no longer:
(ωμοσεν). First aorist indicative of ομνυω to swear.
(εν τω ζωντ). This use of εν after ομνυω instead of the usual accusative () is like the Hebrew (). "The living one for ages of ages" is a common phrase in the Apocalypse for God as eternally existing (). This oath proves that this angel is not Christ.
(ος εκτισεν). First aorist active indicative of κτιζω, a reference to God's creative activity as seen in , etc.
(οτ χρονος ουκετ εστα). Future indicative indirect discourse with οτ. But this does not mean that χρονος (time), Einstein's "fourth dimension" (added to length, breadth, height), will cease to exist, but only that there will be no more delay in the fulfillment of the seventh trumpet (verse ), in answer to the question, "How long?" ().
7 But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he shall begin to sound, the mystery of God should be finished, as he hath declared to his servants the prophets.
(οταν μελλη σαλπιζειν). Indefinite temporal clause with οταν and the present active subjunctive of μελλω and the present (inchoative) active infinitive of σαλπιζω, "whenever he is about to begin to sound" (in contrast to the aorist in ).
(κα). So in apodosis often ().
(ετελεσθη). First aorist passive indicative of τελεω, proleptic or futuristic use of the aorist as in . So also .
(το μυστηριον του θεου). This same phrase by Paul in . Here apparently the whole purpose of God in human history is meant.
(ως ευηγγελισεν). "As he gospelized to," first aorist active indicative of ευαγγελιζω, a rare use of the active as in with the accusative. See the middle so used in . See for this idea in the O.T. prophets who hoped for a cleaning up of all mysteries in the last days.
8And the voice which I heard from heaven spake unto me again, and said, Go and take the little book which is open in the hand of the angel which standeth upon the sea and upon the earth.
(παλιν λαλουσαν κα λεγουσαν). Present active predicate participles feminine accusative singular agreeing with ην (object of ηκουσα), not with φωνη (nominative) as most of the cursives have it (λαλουσα κα λεγουσα). Ordinarily it would be ελαλε κα ελεγεν. See for like idiom. This is the voice mentioned in verse . No great distinction is to be made here between λαλεω and λεγω.
(Hυπαγε λαβε). Present active imperative of υπαγω and second aorist active imperative of λαμβανω. The use of υπαγε (exclamation like ιδε) is common in N.T. (). Charles calls it a Hebraism (). Note the repeated article here (το) referring to the open book in the hand of the angel (verse ), only here βιβλιον is used, not the diminutive of βιβλαριδιον of verses .
9And I went unto the angel, and said unto him, Give me the little book. And he said unto me, Take it, and eat it up; and it shall make thy belly bitter, but it shall be in thy mouth sweet as honey.
(απηλθα). Second aorist active indicative (-α form), "I went away" (απ-) to the angel. John left his position by the door of heaven ().
(δουνα). Second aorist active infinitive of διδωμ, indirect command after λεγων (bidding) for δος in the direct discourse (second aorist active imperative second person singular). This use of λεγω to bid occurs in .
(λεγε). Dramatic vivid present active indicative of λεγω.
(λαβε κα καταφαγε αυτο). Second aorist (effective) active imperatives of λαμβανω and κατεσθιω (perfective use of κατα, "eat down," we say "eat up"). See the same metaphor in . The book was already open and was not to be read aloud, but to be digested mentally by John.
(πικρανε σου την κοιλιαν). Future active of πικραινω, for which verb see . There is no reference in Ezekiel or Jeremiah to the bitterness here mentioned.
(γλυκυ ως μελ). For the sweetness of the roll see . "Every revelation of God's purposes, even though a mere fragment, a βιβλαριδιον, is 'bitter-sweet,' disclosing judgement as well as mercy" (Swete). Deep and bitter sorrows confront John as he comes to understand God's will and way.
10And I took the little book out of the angel's hand, and ate it up; and it was in my mouth sweet as honey: and as soon as I had eaten it, my belly was bitter.
(ελαβον--κα κατεφαγον αυτο). Second aorist active indicatives of the same verbs to show John's prompt obedience to the command. The order of the results is here changed to the actual experience (sweet in the mouth, bitter in the belly). The simplex verb εφαγον (I ate) is now used, not the compound κατεφαγον (I ate up).
11And he said unto me, Thou must prophesy again before many peoples, and nations, and tongues, and kings.
(λεγουσιν). Present active of vivid dramatic action and the indefinite statement in the plural as in . It is possible that the allusion is to the heavenly voice () and to the angel ().
(δε σε παλιν προφητευσα). Not a new commission (), though now renewed. C.f. . The παλιν (again) points to what has preceded and also to what is to come in . Here it is predictive prophecy (προφητευσα, first aorist active infinitive of προφητευω).
(επ). In the case, in regard to as in (with γραφω), not in the presence of (επ with genitive, ) nor against (επ with the accusative, ). For this list of peoples see , occurring seven times in the Apocalypse.