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新天新地

1 我又看见一个新天新地,因为先前的天地都过去了,海也再没有了。
1 And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.
1

(ουρανον καινον κα γην καινην). This new vision (ειδον) is the picture of the bliss of the saints.

(ο πρωτος ουρανος κα η πρωτη γη)

(απηλθαν, went away, second aorist active indicative of απερχομα). "Fled away" (εφυγεν) in .

(κα η θαλασσα ουκ εστιν ετ). The sea had given up its dead (). There were great risks on the sea (). The old physical world is gone in this vision. It is not a picture of renovation of this earth, but of the disappearance of this earth and sky (not heaven where God dwells). It is a glorious picture here in in sharp contrast to the lake of fire in . The symbolism in neither case is to be pressed too literally, but a stern and a glorious reality exists behind it all.

2我又看见圣城,新耶路撒冷,从天上由 神那里降下来,预备好了,好像打扮整齐等候丈夫的新娘。
2 And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.
2

(την πολιν την αγιαν Ιερουσαλημ καινην). "The New Earth must have a new metropolis, not another Babylon, but another and greater Jerusalem" (Swete), and not the old Jerusalem which was destroyed A.D. 70. It was called the Holy City in a conventional way (), but now in reality because it is new and fresh (καινην), this heavenly Jerusalem of hope (), this Jerusalem above () where our real citizenship is ().

(καταβαινουσαν εκ του ουρανου απο του θεου). Glorious picture caught by John and repeated from and again in . But Charles distinguishes this new city of God from that in because there is no tree of life in this one. But one shrinks from too much manipulation of this symbolism. It is better to see the glorious picture with John and let it tell its own story.

(ητοιμασμενην). Perfect passive participle of ετοιμαζω as in . The Wife of the Lamb made herself ready in her bridal attire.

(ως νυμφην κεκοσμημενην). Perfect passive participle of κοσμεω, old verb (from κοσμος ornament like our cosmetics), as in . Only here the figure of bride is not the people of God as in , but the abode of the people of God (the New Jerusalem).

(τω ανδρ αυτης). Dative case of personal interest.

3我听见有大声音从宝座那里发出来,说:“看哪! 神的帐幕在人间,他要与人同住,他们要作他的子民。 神要亲自与他们同在,要作他们的 神。
3And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.
3

(η σκηνη του θεου μετα των ανθρωπων). It is one of the angels of the Presence () speaking.

(κα σκηνωσε μετ' αυτων). Future active of σκηνοω, already in from and used of the Incarnate Christ on earth by John (), now a blessed reality of the Father. The metaphor stands for the Shekinah Glory of God in the old tabernacle (), the true tabernacle of which it was a picture (). God is now Immanuel in fact, as was true of Christ ().

4他要抹去他们的一切眼泪,不再有死亡,也不再有悲哀、哭号、痛苦,因为先前的事都过去了。”
4 And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.
4

(εξαλειψε παν δακρυον εκ των οφθαλμων αυτων). More exactly, "shall wipe out every tear out of their eyes" (repetition of εξ) like a tender mother as in (). There is no more that ought to cause a tear, for death (θανατος) is no more, mourning (πενθος), associated with death and crying (κραυγη, wailing), and pain (πονος as in ) are all gone. There is peace and bliss.

5坐在宝座上的那一位说:“看哪,我把一切都更新了!”又说:“你要写下来,因为这些话是可信的、真实的。”
5And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.
5

(Ιδου καινα ποιω παντα). The first time since that God has been represented as speaking directly, though voices have come out of the throne before () and out of the sanctuary (), which may be from God himself, though more likely from one of the angels of the Presence. This message is not addressed to John (), but to the entire world of the blessed. See for the words (Ιδου εγω ποιω καινα). The idea of a new heaven and a new earth is in . For the locative here with επ (επ τω θρονω) see (genitive more usual, , etc.). See for the picture.

(κα λεγε). Probably this means a change of speakers, made plain by μο (to me) in many MSS. An angel apparently (as in ) assures John and urges him to write (γραψον as in ). The reason given (οτ, for) is precisely the saying in and he uses the two adjectives (πιστο κα αληθινο) employed in about God himself, and about Christ. In αληθινο occurs also about "the words of God" as here. They are reliable and genuine.

6他又对我说:“成了!我是阿拉法,是俄梅格;我是创始的,也是成终的。我要把生命的泉水,白白赐给口渴的人喝。
6 And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.
6

(Γεγοναν). Second perfect active indicative of γινομα with -αν for -ασ. See for a like use of γεγονεν, "They have come to pass." Here again it is the voice of God because, as in , He says:

(Εγω το Αλφα κα το Ο) with the addition "the beginning and the end" (η αρχη κα το τελος), the whole used in of Christ. In there is something like the addition, and in η αρχη is applied to Christ, while here God is the First Cause (αρχη) and the Finality (τελος) as in . But God works through Christ (). God is the bountiful Giver () of the Water of Life. See for this metaphor, which is based on . It is God's own promise (Εγω δωσω), "I will give."

(εκ της πηγης). For this partitive use of εκ see , without εκ .

(δωρεαν). See .

7得胜的,必要承受这些福分。我要作他的 神,他要作我的儿子。
7He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son.
7

(ο νικων). Recalls the promises at the close of each of the Seven Letters in chapters 2 and 3.

(κληρονομησε). Future active of κληρονομεω, word with great history (), here interpreted for the benefit of these who share in Christ's victory.

(Εσομα αυτω θεος). Repeated Old Testament promise (first to Abraham, ). Cf. .

(αυτος εστα μο υιος). Made first of Solomon () and applied to David later in .

8只是那些胆怯的、不信的、可憎的、杀人的、淫乱的、行邪术的、拜偶像的和所有说谎的人,他们的分是在烧着硫磺的火湖里。这就是第二次的死。”
8 But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.
8

(το μερος αυτων). In contrast to the state of the blessed (verses ) the state of "those who have disfranchised themselves from the Kingdom of God" (Charles) is given. They are with Satan and the two beasts, and are the same with those not in the book of life () in the lake of fire and brimstone (), that is the second death (). See also . There are eight epithets here used which apply to various sections of this direful list of the doomed and the damned, all in the dative (case of personal interest).

(τοις δειλοις). Old word (from δειδω, to fear) for the cowardly, who recanted under persecution, in N.T. only here, .

(απιστοις). "Faithless," "untrustworthy," in contrast with Christ "ο πιστος" (). Cf. . Disloyalty is close kin to cowardice.

(εβδελυγμενοις). Perfect passive participle of βδελυσσω, old verb, in N.T. only here and , common in LXX, to pollute (). Those who have become defiled by the impurities of emperor-worship ().

(φονευσιν). As a matter of course and all too common always ().

(πορνοις). Again all too common always, then and now (). These two crimes often go together.

(φαρμακοις). Old word, in N.T. only here and . Closely connected with idolatry and magic ().

(ειδωλολατραις). See . With a powerful grip on men's lives then and now.

(πασ τοις ψευδεσιν). Repeated in and stigmatized often (). Not a "light" sin.

新耶路撒冷

9拿着七个盛满着末后七灾的碗的七位天使中,有一位走来对我说:“你来!我要把新娘,就是羊羔的妻子,指示你。”
9 And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb's wife.
9

(εις εκ των επτα αγγελων). As in with the same introduction when the angel made the announcement about the harlot city (Babylon), so here the description of the heavenly city, the New Jerusalem, is given by one of the same group of angels who had the seven bowls. Thus the νυμφη (Bride) is placed in sharp contrast with the πορνη (Harlot). The New Jerusalem was briefly presented in verse , but now is pictured at length () in a nearer and clearer vision.

(την νυμφην την γυναικα του αρνιου). Twice already the metaphor of the Bride has been used (), here termed "wife" (γυναικα), mentioned proleptically as in if the marriage is not yet a reality. For the use of the same metaphor elsewhere in the N.T. see on .

10我在灵里被那天使带到一座高大的山上,他把从天上由 神那里降下来的圣城耶路撒冷指示我。
10 And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God,
10

(απηνεγκεν με εν πνευματ). See same language in when John received a vision of the Harlot City in a wilderness. Here it is "to a mountain great and high" (επ ορος μεγα κα υψηλον). So it was with Ezekiel () and so the devil took Jesus (). It was apparently not Mount Zion (), for the New Jerusalem is seen from this mountain. "The Seer is carried thither 'in spirit' (cf. ); the Angel's δευρο is a sursum cor to which his spirit under the influence of the 'Spirit of revelation' () at once responds" (Swete).

(κα εδειξεν μο). First aorist active indicative of δεικνυμ, just as he had said he would do in verse (δειξω σο, I will shew thee). Precisely the same words about Jerusalem as in verse , save the absence of καινην (New).

11这城有 神的荣耀,城的光辉好像极贵的宝石,又像晶莹的碧玉。
11Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal;
11

(εχουσαν την δοξαν του θεου). Syntactically this clause goes with verse , the feminine accusative singular participle εχουσαν agreeing with πολιν, the radiance of the dazzling splendour of God as seen in . God's very presence is in the Holy City (the Bride).

(φωστηρ). "Luminary," late word (in LXX, papyri), in N.T. only here and . Christ is the light (φως) of the world () and so are Christians () who have received the illumination (φωτισμος) of God in the face of Christ () and who radiate it to men (). See both words in . "The 'luminary' of the Holy City is her witness to Christ" (Swete).

(ομοιος λιθω τιμιωτατω). Associative instrumental case after ομοιος. Τιμιωτατω is the elative superlative.

(ως λιθω ιασπιδ). As in , which see.

(κρυσταλλιζοντ). Verb not found elsewhere from κρυσταλλος (old word, ), "of crystalline brightness and transparency" (Thayer), "transparent and gleaming as rock-crystal" (Moffatt).

12有高大的城墙,有十二个门,门口有十二位天使,门上写着以色列十二支派的名字。
12 And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel:
12

(εχουσα τειχος μεγα κα υψηλον). John returns, after the parenthesis in verse , to the structure in verse , only to use the accusative εχουσαν as before to agree with πολιν, but the nominative εχουσα as again with "twelve gates" (πυλωνας δωδεκα). Πυλων is an old word (from πυλη gate) for a large gate as in and six times in Rev. for the gate tower of a city wall () as in . See for these twelve gates, one for each tribe (cf. ).

(επ τοις πυλωσιν). "Upon the gate towers."

(αγγελους δωδεκα). As πυλωρο or φυλακες according to .

(ονοματα επιγεγραμμενα). Perfect passive participle of επιγραφω.

(α εστιν). Just as in Ezekiel's vision (), so here the names of the twelve tribes of Israel appear, one on each gate.

13东边有三个门,南边有三个门,西边有三个门,北边有三个门。
13On the east three gates; on the north three gates; on the south three gates; and on the west three gates.
13

(πυλωνες τρεις) on each of the four sides as in ; "on the east" (απο ανατολης, as in , starting from the east), "on the north" (απο βορρα, from the north, as in ), "on the south" (απο νοτου, from the south, as in ), "on the west" (απο δυσμων, from the west, as in ).

14城墙有十二座根基,根基上有羊羔的十二使徒的名字。
14 And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.
14

(εχων). Masculine present active participle of εχω instead of εχον (neuter like to τειχος), and the participle occurs independently as if a principal verb (ειχεν) as often in this book.

(θεμελιους δωδεκα). Foundation stones, old adjective (from θεμα, from τιθημ), here as in , with λιθους (stones understood), though often neuter substantive to θεμελιον (). See . Twelve because of the twelve apostles as foundation stones ().

(επ' αυτων). On the twelve foundation stones.

(ονοματα των δωδεκα αποστολων του αρνιου). Jesus had spoken of twelve thrones for the apostles (); names of all twelve are here written, not just that of Peter, as some would argue from . As a matter of fact, Christ is the corner stone or ακρογωνιαιον (), though rejected by the Sanhedrin (). One may wonder if the name of Judas is on that stone or that of Matthias.

15那对我说话的天使拿着一根金的芦苇,要量那城、城门和城墙。
15And he that talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city, and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof.
15

(ειχεν). Regular imperfect here, no longer εχων.

(μετρον καλαμον χρυσουν). See for καλαμος (reed). Μετρον is an old word, kin to μητηρ (mother, moulder, manager), an instrument for measuring (μετρεω) as in , here in the predicate accusative.

(ινα μετρηση). Purpose clause with ινα and the first aorist active subjunctive of μετρεω. The rod of gold was in keeping with the dignity of the service of God ().

16城是四方的,长宽都一样。天使用芦苇量那城,共有二千四百公里(“二千四百公里”原文作“一万二千司他町”),城的长、宽、高都一样;
16And the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal.
16

(τετραγωνος κειτα). Present middle indicative of κειμα. The predicate adjective is from τετρα (Aeolic for τεσσαρες four) and γωνος (γωνια corner, ) here only in N.T. As in . It is a tetragon or quadrilateral quadrangle ().

(το μηκος αυτης οσον το πλατος). It is rectangular, both walls and city within. Babylon, according to Herodotus, was a square, each side being 120 stadia. Diodorus Siculus says that Nineveh was also foursquare.

(τω καλαμω). Instrumental case (cf. verse for καλαμος) and for μετρεω (aorist active indicative here)

(επ σταδιων δωδεκα χιλιαδων). This use of the genitive σταδιων with επ is probably correct (reading of Aleph P), though A Q have σταδιους (more usual, but confusing here with χιλιαδων). Thucydides and Xenophon use επ with the genitive in a like idiom (in the matter of). It is not clear whether the 1500 miles (12,000 furlongs) is the measurement of each of the four sides or the sum total. Some of the rabbis argued that the walls of the New Jerusalem of Ezekiel would reach to Damascus and the height would be 1500 miles high.

(ισα). That is, it is a perfect cube like the Holy of Holies in Solomon's temple (). This same measurement (πλατοσ, μηκοσ, υψος) is applied to Christ's love in , with βαθος (depth) added. It is useless to try to reduce the measurements or to put literal interpretations upon this highly wrought symbolic language. Surely the meaning is that heaven will be large enough for all, as Jesus said () without insisting on the materialistic measurement of a gorgeous apartment house full of inside rooms.

17又量了城墙,约有六十公尺(“六十公尺”原文作“一百四十四肘”)。天使用的标准,就是人量度的标准。
17And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel.
17

(εκατον τεσσερακοντα τεσσαρων πηχων). Another multiple of 12 (12x12=144) as in . It is not clear whether it is the height or the breadth of the wall that is meant, though υψος (height) comes just before. That would be 216 feet high (cf. verse ), not enormous in comparison with the 7,000,000 feet (1500 miles) height of the city.

(μετρον ανθρωπου, ο εστιν αγγελου). No preposition for "according to," just the accusative case of general reference in apposition with the verb εμετρησεν. Though measured by an angel, a human standard was employed, man's measure which is angel's (Bengel).

18城墙是用碧玉做的,城是用明净像玻璃的纯金做的。
18And the building of the wall of it was of jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass.
18

(η ενδωμησις του τειχους). Or ενδομησις, elsewhere so far only in Josephus (Ant. XV. 9. 6, a mole or breakwater) and in an inscription (Syll. 583 31), apparently from ενδομεω, to build in, and so the fact of building in. The wall had jasper (verse ) built into it.

(χρυσιον καθαρον). No copula ην (was) expressed. The city shone like a mass of gold in contrast with the jasper lustre of the wall.

(υαλω καθαρω). Associative instrumental case after ομοιον. Hυαλος (apparently from υε, it rains, and so raindrop) in N.T. only .

19城墙的根基是用各样宝石装饰的:第一座根基是碧玉,第二座是蓝宝石,第三座是玛瑙,第四座是绿宝石,
19 And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;
19

(κεκοσμημενο). Perfect passive participle of κοσμεω as in verse , but without the copula ησαν (were), followed by instrumental case λιθω (stone).

(παντ λιθω τιμιω). "With every precious stone." The list of the twelve stones in verses has no necessary mystical meaning. "The writer is simply trying to convey the impression of a radiant and superb structure" (Moffatt). The twelve gems do correspond closely (only eight in common) with the twelve stones on the high priest's breastplate (). Charles identifies them with the signs of zodiac in reverse order, a needless performance here. See the stones in . These foundation stones are visible. For jasper (ιασπις) see ; sapphire (σαπφειρος) see (possibly the λαπις λαζυλ of Turkestan); chalcedony (χαλκηδων) we have no other reference in N.T. or LXX (described by Pliny, H.N. XXXIII.21), possibly a green silicate of copper from near Chalcedon; emerald (σμαραγδος) here only in N.T., see σμαραγδινος, and like it a green stone.

20第五座是红玛瑙,第六座是红宝石,第七座是黄璧玺,第八座是水苍玉,第九座是红璧玺,第十座是翡翠,第十一座是紫玛瑙,第十二座是紫晶。
20 The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst.
20

Sardonyx (σαρδονυξ), here only in N.T., white with layers of red, from sardion (red carnelian) and onyx (white); for sardius (σαρδιον) see ; chrysolite (χρυσολιθος), here only in N.T. (), stone of a golden colour like our topaz or amber or a yellow beryl or golden jasper; beryl (βηρυλλος), again here only in N.T. (), note the difficulty of identification, much like the emerald according to Pliny; for topaz (τοπαζιον), here only in N.T. (), a golden-greenish stolle; chrysoprase (chrusoprasos), here only in N.T. (not in LXX), in colour like a teek, translucent golden-green; jacinth (υακινθος), of the colour of the hyacinth, a violet colour (Pliny), already in like blue smoke, like achates in LXX; amethyst (αμεθυστος), only here in N.T. (), of a violet and purple colour, more brilliant than the υακινθος. Swete sums up the colours thus: blue (sapphire, jacinth, amethyst), green (jasper, chalcedony, emerald, beryl, topaz, chrysoprase), red (sardonyx, sardius), yellow (chrysolite). But even so there is great variety in hue and brilliancy and in the reaction on each other. Clement of Alexandria argues that this variety illustrates the variety of gifts and graces in the twelve apostles. Possibly so.

21十二个门是十二颗珍珠,每一个门是用一颗珍珠做的。城里的街道是纯金的,好像透明的玻璃。
21 And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass.
21

(δωδεκα μαργαριτα). These gate towers (πυλωνες) were mentioned in verses . Each of these (cf. ) is a pearl, one of the commonest of jewels ().

(ανα εις εκαστος). Distributive use of ανα, but with the nominative (used as adverb, not preposition) rather than the accusative (as a preposition) as appears also in ; with κατα in , "a barbaric construction" according to Charles.

(πλατεια). For which word (broad way, οδος understood) see , here the singular, but includes all the streets.

(διαυγης). Old word (from δια, through, αυγη, ray, shining through), here alone in N.T.

22我没有看见城里有圣所,因为主全能的 神和羊羔就是城的圣所。
22 And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it.
22

(ναον ουκ ειδον εν αυτη). "Temple I did not see in it." The whole city is a temple in one sense (verse ), but it is something more than a temple even with its sanctuary and Shekinah Glory in the Holy of Holies.

(ο γαρ Κυριος ο θεος ο παντοκρατωρ, ναος αυτης εστιν κα το αρνιον). "For the Lord God, the Almighty, is the sanctuary of it and the Lamb." The Eternal Presence is the Shekinah Glory of God (verse ). In we are the sanctuary of God here, but now God is our Sanctuary, and so is the Lamb as in chapters . See and often for the description of God here.

23这城不需要日月照明,因为有 神的荣耀照明,而羊羔就是城的灯。
23 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.
23

(ινα φαινωσιν αυτη). Purpose clause with ινα and the present active subjunctive of φαινω, to keep on shining. Light is always a problem in our cities. See .

(εφωτισεν αυτην). First aorist active indicative of φωτιζω, to illumine, old verb from φως (). If the sun and moon did shine, they would give no added light in the presence of the Shekinah Glory of God. See verse for "the glory of God." Cf. . "Their splendour is simply put to shame by the glory of God Himself" (Charles).

(κα ο λυχνος αυτης το αρνιον). Charles takes ο λυχνος as predicate, "and the Lamb is the lamp thereof." Bousset thinks that John means to compare Christ to the moon the lesser light (), but that contrast is not necessary. Swete sees Christ as the one lamp for all in contrast with the many λυχνια of the churches on earth (). "No words could more clearly demonstrate the purely spiritual character of St. John's conception of the New Jerusalem" (Swete).

24列国要借着城的光行走,地上的众王要把他们的荣华带到这城来。
24 And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it.
24

(δια του φωτος αυτης). Rather "by the light thereof." From . All the moral and spiritual progress of moderns is due to Christ, and the nations of earth will be represented, including "the kings" (ο βασιλεις), mentioned also in , "do bring their glory into it" (φερουσιν την δοξαν αυτων εις αυτην). Present active indicative of φερω. Swete is uncertain whether this is a picture of heaven itself or "some gracious purpose of God towards humanity which has not yet been revealed" and he cites in illustration. The picture is beautiful and glorious even if not realized here, but only in heaven.

25城门白天决不关闭。在那里并没有黑夜。
25And the gates of it shall not be shut at all by day: for there shall be no night there.
25

(ου μη κλεισθωσιν). Double negative with the first aorist passive subjunctive of κλειω.

(ημερας). Genitive of time. Mentioned alone without νυκτος (by night), "for there shall be no night there" (νυξ γαρ ουκ εστα εκε). This looks like a continued picture of heaven.

26列国的荣华尊贵都被带到这城。
26And they shall bring the glory and honour of the nations into it.
26

(οισουσιν). Future active indicative of φερω. Rome gathered the merchandise of the world (). The City of God will have the best of all the nations (), an expansion of verse .

27所有不洁净的、行可憎的和说谎的,决不可以进入这城。只有名字记在羊羔生命册上的才可以进去。
27And there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a lie: but they which are written in the Lamb's book of life.
27

(ου μη εισελθη εις αυτην). Double negative again with the second aorist active subjunctive of εισερχομα with εις repeated. Like .

(παν κοινον). Common use of παν with negative like ουδεν, and the use of κοινος for defiled or profane as in , not just what is common to all ().

(κα ο). "And he that."

(ποιων βδελυγμα κα ψευδος). Like Babylon ( which see for βδελυγμα) and for those in the lake of fire and brimstone, and for "every one loving and doing a lie." These recurrent glimpses of pagan life on earth and of hell in contrast to heaven in this picture raise the question already mentioned whether John is just running parallel pictures of heaven and hell after the judgment or whether, as Charles says: "The unclean and the abominable and the liars are still on earth, but, though the gates are open day and night, they cannot enter." In apocalyptic writing literalism and chronology cannot be insisted on as in ordinary books. The series of panoramas continue to the end.

(ε μη ο γεγραμμενο). "Except those written." For "the book of life" see . Cf. .