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与基督同死同活

1 这样,我们可以说什么呢?我们可以常在罪中,叫恩典增多吗?
1What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?
1

(τ ουν ερουμεν?). "A debater's phrase" (Morison). Yes, and an echo of the rabbinical method of question and answer, but also an expression of exultant victory of grace versus sin. But Paul sees the possible perversion of this glorious grace.

(επιμενωμεν τη αμαρτιαι?). Present active deliberative subjunctive of επιμενω, old verb to tarry as in Ephesus (1Co 16:8) with locative case. The practice of sin as a habit (present tense) is here raised.

(ινα η χαρις πτεοναση). Final clause with ingressive aorist subjunctive, to set free the superfluity of grace alluded to like putting money in circulation. Horrible thought (μη γενοιτο) and yet Paul faced it. There are occasionally so-called pietists who actually think that God's pardon gives them liberty to sin without penalty (cf. the sale of indulgences that stirred Martin Luther).

2绝对不可!我们向罪死了的人,怎么可以仍然活在罪中呢?
2 God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?
2

(απεθανομεν τη αμαρτια). Second aorist active of αποθνησκω and the dative case. When we surrendered to Christ and took him as Lord and Saviour. Qualitative relative (οιτινες, we the very ones who).

(πως). Rhetorical question.

3难道你们不晓得我们这受洗归入基督耶稣的人,是受洗归入他的死吗?
3 Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death?
3

(εβαπτισθημεν εις Χριστον). First aorist passive indicative of βαπτιζω. Better, "were baptized unto Christ or in Christ." The translation "into" makes Paul say that the union with Christ was brought to pass by means of baptism, which is not his idea, for Paul was not a sacramentarian. Εις is at bottom the same word as εν. Baptism is the public proclamation of one's inward spiritual relation to Christ attained before the baptism. See on Ga 3:27 where it is like putting on an outward garment or uniform.

(εις τον θανατον αυτου). So here "unto his death," "in relation to his death," which relation Paul proceeds to explain by the symbolism of the ordinance.

4所以我们借着洗礼归入死,与他同葬,为的是要我们过新生命的生活,像基督借着父的荣耀从死人中复活一样。
4Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.
4

(συνεταφημεν ουν αυτω δια του βαπτισματος εις τον θανατον). Second aorist passive indicative of συνθαπτω, old verb to bury together with, in N.T. only here and Col 2:12. With associative instrumental case (αυτω) and "by means of baptism unto death" as in verse 3.

(εν καινοτητ ζωης). The picture in baptism points two ways, backwards to Christ's death and burial and to our death to sin (verse 1), forwards to Christ's resurrection from the dead and to our new life pledged by the coming out of the watery grave to walk on the other side of the baptismal grave (F. B. Meyer). There is the further picture of our own resurrection from the grave. It is a tragedy that Paul's majestic picture here has been so blurred by controversy that some refuse to see it. It should be said also that a symbol is not the reality, but the picture of the reality.

5我们若在他死的样式上与他联合,也要在他复活的样式上与他联合。
5For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection:
5

(ε γαρ συμφυτο γεγοναμεν τω ομοιωματ του θανατου αυτου). Condition of the first class, assumed to be true. Συμφυτο is old verbal adjective from συμφυω, to grow together. Baptism as a picture of death and burial symbolizes our likeness to Christ in his death.

(αλλα κα της αναστασεως εσομεθα). The conclusion to the previous condition introduced by αλλα κα as often and το ομοιωματ (in the likeness) must be understood before της αναστασεως (of his resurrection). Baptism is a picture of the past and of the present and a prophecy of the future, the matchless preacher of the new life in Christ.

6我们知道,我们的旧人已经与基督同钉十字架,使罪身丧失机能,使我们不再作罪的奴仆,
6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.
6

(ο παλαιος ημων ανθρωπος). Only in Paul (here, Col 3:9; Eph 4:22).

(συνεσταυρωθη). See on Ga 2:19 for this boldly picturesque word. This took place not at baptism, but only pictured there. It took place when "we died to sin" (verse 1).

(το σωμα της αμαρτιας). "The body of which sin has taken possession" (Sanday and Headlam), the body marked by sin.

(του μηκετ δουλευειν ημας τη αμαρτια). Purpose clause with του and the present active infinitive of δουλευω, continue serving sin (as slaves). Adds "slavery" to living in sin (verse 2).

7因为死了的人已经脱离罪了。
7 For he that is dead is freed from sin.
7

(δεδικαιωτα). Perfect passive indicative of δικαιοω, stands justified, set free from, adding this great word to death and life of verses 1,2.

8我们既然与基督同死,就信也必与他同活。
8Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him:
8

(συν Χριστω). As pictured by baptism, the crucifixion with Christ of verse 6.

9我们知道,基督既然从死人中复活,就不再死,死也不再辖制他了。
9Knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him.
9

(ουκετ αποθνησκε). "Christ's particular death occurs but once" (Shedd). See Heb 10:10. A complete refutation of the "sacrificial" character of the "mass."

10他死,是向罪死了,只有这一次;他活,是向 神活着。
10For in that he died, he died unto sin once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God.
10

(ο απεθανεν). Neuter relative, cognative accusative with απεθανεν.

(εφαπαξ). Once and once only (Heb 9:26f.), not ποτε (once upon a time).

(ο ζη). Cognate accusative of the relative.

11你们也应当这样,向罪算自己是死的,在基督耶稣里,向 神却是活的。
11Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.
11

(κα υμεις λογιζεσθε). Direct middle imperative of λογιζομα and complete proof that Paul does not mean that baptism makes one dead to sin and alive to God. That is a spiritual operation "in Christ Jesus" and only pictured by baptism. This is a plea to live up to the ideal of the baptized life.

12所以,不要容罪在你们必死的肉身上掌权,使你们顺从肉身的私欲,
12 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey it in the lusts thereof.
12

(βασιλευετω). Present active imperative, "let not sin continue to reign" as it did once (5:12).

(θνητο). Verbal adjective from θνησκω, subject to death. The reign of sin is over with you. Self-indulgence is inconsistent with trust in the vicarious atonement.

(εις το υπακουειν). With a view to obeying.

13也不要把你们的肢体献给罪,作不义的用具;倒要像出死得生的人,把自己献给 神,并且把你们的肢体献给 神作义的用具。
13Neither yield ye your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto God.
13

(μηδε παριστανετε). Present active imperative in prohibition of παριστανω, late form of παριστημ, to place beside. Stop presenting your members or do not have the habit of doing so, "do not go on putting your members to sin as weapons of unrighteousness."

(οπλα). Old word for tools of any kind for shop or war (Joh 18:3; 2Co 6:7; 10:4; Ro 13:12). Possibly here figure of two armies arrayed against each other (Ga 5:16-24), and see οπλα δικαιοσυνης below. The two sets of οπλα clash.

(αλλα παραστησατε εαυτους τω θεω). First aorist active imperative of παριστημ, same verb, but different tense, do it now and completely. Our "members" (μελη) should be at the call of God "as alive from the dead."

14罪必不能辖制你们,因为你们不是在律法之下,而是在恩典之下。
14For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.
14

(ου κυριευσε). Future active indicative of κυριευω, old verb from κυριος, "shall not lord it over you," even if not yet wholly dead. Cf. 2Co 1:24.

作义的奴仆

15那却怎么样呢?我们不在律法之下,而在恩典之下,就可以犯罪吗?绝对不可!
15What then? shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? God forbid.
15

(τ ουν?). Another turn in the argument about the excess of grace.

(αμαρτεσωμεν?). First aorist active deliberative subjunctive of αμαρτανω. "Shall we commit sin" (occasional acts of sin as opposed to the life of sin as raised by επιμενωμεν τη αμαρτια in verse 1)?

(οτ). The same reason as in verse 1 and taken up from the very words in verse 14. Surely, the objector says, we may take a night off now and then and sin a little bit "since we are under grace."

16难道你们不知道你们自愿作奴仆去顺从人,顺从谁就作谁的奴仆,或作罪的奴仆以致于死,或作顺从的奴仆以致于义吗?
16Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?
16

(δουλο εστε ω υπακουετε). Bondservants, slaves of the one whom ye obey, whatever one's profession may be, traitors, spies sometimes they are called. As Paul used the figure to illustrate death to sin and resurrection to new life in Christ and not in sin, so now he uses slavery against the idea of occasional lapses into sin. Loyalty to Christ will not permit occasional crossing over to the other side to Satan's line.

17感谢 神,你们虽然作过罪的奴仆,现在却从心里顺从了传授给你们的教义的规范。
17But God be thanked, that ye were the servants of sin, but ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered you.
17

(ητε). Imperfect but no "whereas" in the Greek. Paul is not grateful that they were once slaves of sin, but only that, though they once were, they turned from that state.

(εις ον παρεδοθητε τυπον διδαχης). Incorporation of the antecedent (τυπον διδαχης) into the relative clause: "to which form of doctrine ye were delivered." See on 5:14 for τυπον. It is hardly proper to take "form" here to refer to Paul's gospel (2:16), possibly an allusion to the symbolism of baptism which was the outward sign of the separation.

18你们既然从罪里得了释放,就作了义的奴仆。
18Being then made free from sin, ye became the servants of righteousness.
18

(εδουλωθητε τη δικαιοσυνη). First aorist passive indicative of δουλοω, to enslave. "Ye were made slaves to righteousness." You have simply changed masters, no longer slaves of sin (set free from that tyrant), but ye are slaves of righteousness. There is no middle ground, no "no man's land" in this war.

19因为你们肉体的弱点,我就按一般人的话来说,你们从前怎样把你们的肢体献给不洁和不法作奴仆,以致于不法,现在也要照样把你们的肢体献给义作奴仆,以致于成圣。
19I speak after the manner of men because of the infirmity of your flesh: for as ye have yielded your members servants to uncleanness and to iniquity unto iniquity; even so now yield your members servants to righteousness unto holiness.
19

(ανθρωπινον λεγω). "I speak a human word." He begs pardon for using "slaving" in connection with righteousness. But it is a good word, especially for our times when self-assertiveness and personal liberty bulk so large in modern speech. See 3:5; Ga 3:15 where he uses κατα ανθρωπον.

(δια την ασθενειαν της σαρκος υμων). Because of defective spiritual insight largely due to moral defects also.

(δουλα τη ακαθαρσια). Neuter plural form of δουλος to agree with μελη (members). Patently true in sexual sins, in drunkenness, and all fleshly sins, absolutely slaves like narcotic fiends.

(ουτως νυν). Now that you are born again in Christ. Paul uses twice again the same verb παριστημ, to present (παρεστησατε, παραστησατε).

(δουλα τη δικαιοσυνη). Repeats the idea of verse 18.

(εις αγιασμον). This the goal, the blessed consummation that demands and deserves the new slavery without occasional lapses or sprees (verse 15). This late word appears only in LXX, N.T., and ecclesiastical writers so far. See on 1Th 4:3; 1Co 1:30. Paul includes sanctification in his conception of the God-kind (1:17) of righteousness (both justification, 1:18-5:21 and sanctification, chapters 6-8). It is a life process of consecration, not an instantaneous act. Paul shows that we ought to be sanctified (6:1-7:6) and illustrates the obligation by death (6:1-14), by slavery (6:15-23), and by marriage (7:1-6).

20你们作罪的奴仆的时候,就不受义的约束。
20For when ye were the servants of sin, ye were free from righteousness.
20

(ελευθερο τη δικαιοσυνη). Ye wore no collar of righteousness, but freely did as ye pleased. They were "free." Note dative case, personal relation, of δικαιοσυνη.

21那么,你们在现今以为羞耻的事上,当时得了什么呢?那些事的结局就是死。
21 What fruit had ye then in those things whereof ye are now ashamed? for the end of those things is death.
21

(τινα ουν καρπον ειχετε τοτε?). Imperfect active, used to have. A pertinent question. Ashes in their hands now. They are ashamed now of the memory of them. The end of them is death.

22现在你们既然从罪里得了释放,作了 神的奴仆,就有成圣的果子,那结局就是永生。
22 But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life.
22

(εχετε τον καρπον υμων εις αγιασμον). Freedom from sin and slavery to God bring permanent fruit that leads to sanctification.

(το δε τελος ζωην αιωνιον). Note accusative case ζωην αιωνιον, object of εχετε (ye have), though θανατος in contrast above is nominative.

23因为罪的工价就是死,但 神的恩赏,在我们的主基督耶稣里,却是永生。
23 For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
23

(οψωνια). Late Greek for wages of soldier, here of sin. See on Lu 3:14; 1Co 9:7; 2Co 11:8. Sin pays its wages in full with no cut. But eternal life is God's gift (χαρισμα), not wages. Both θανατος and ζωην are

(αιωνιον).